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Borrell called the requirement of non-expansion of NATO to the east unacceptable

Borrell: Demand for NATO not to expand eastward – “purely Russian agenda” He said that “only the winners” put forward their conditions in writing. Borrell stressed the need for Brussels to participate in the security negotiations and said that the discussion should not be limited to the topic of Ukraine

Josep Borrell

Russia wants to negotiate European security without the participation of the European Union, which is absurd, EU High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy Josep Borrell said in an interview with Welt.

east & mdash; this is a purely Russian agenda with completely unacceptable conditions, especially with regard to Ukraine, '', & mdash; he thinks.

Borrell said it was the first time that the Russian side set out its agenda in writing, “ this has never happened. '' “ Only the winners do this: they say that this and that & mdash; my terms & raquo;, & mdash; said the head of European diplomacy.

Borrell stressed that the European Union should participate in negotiations on security in Europe: such consultations will make sense, “ only if they take place in close cooperation with the EU and with its participation. '' “Russia wants to discuss the architecture of European security without including [in this process] the European Union. This is absurd. We will not accept this. No decisions about us can be made if we were not [in the discussion] ', & mdash; the diplomat said.

Borrell is convinced that negotiations with Russia should not be limited to the topic of Ukraine and the non-expansion of the North Atlantic Alliance. “ We have to talk about all violations since the adoption of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, '' & mdash; he stated.

The head of EU diplomacy added that Brussels disagrees with many aspects of Russian foreign policy, as well as “ some of the events that Moscow considers its internal affairs '', & mdash; in particular, with the human rights situation in the country.

In response to the question of whether Russia was planning an attack on Ukraine, Borrell said that such an option is not ruled out, but there are other possible scenarios. As possible scenarios for the development of events, he named the destabilization of the Ukrainian government “ using hybrid tactics '', increased escalation between the Ukrainian military and the separatists of Donbass and pressure on Europe by limiting gas supplies.

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In mid-December, the Russian side handed over to the United States drafts of a security guarantee treaty and an agreement on security measures for Russia and the NATO countries. Among the proposals of Moscow & mdash; an agreement not to expand the alliance to the east, a ban on the accession of the countries of the former USSR and a ban on military activities on their territory.

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg proposed to discuss security guarantees at a meeting of the Russia Council & mdash; NATO January 12. He said that the alliance is ready for a dialogue with Russia, but will not compromise on Ukraine's right to apply for joining the union.

Permanent Representative of Russia to the EU Vladimir Chizhov previously stated that the European Union “ as an organization in general- then non-military '' can play a supportive role in the negotiations on security guarantees between Russia and NATO.

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Experts named the countries with the largest number of treaties with Russia

For 30 years, Russia has concluded most of all agreements with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. For 30 years, Russia has concluded most of all bilateral agreements with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. China and the United States are also among the top ten counterparties of the country. What Moscow agreed with these countries – in the RBC review

The ten most negotiable

Over the 30 years of the existence of modern Russia, it has concluded most of all bilateral treaties with Kazakhstan & mdash; 248, calculated by the experts of the Center for Advanced Management Solutions (CPMD). Most often, agreements related to military cooperation (24 documents) and the space sector (23).

The second and third places are shared by Ukraine and Belarus & mdash; under 231 contracts. With Belarus, Russia most often agreed on the issuance of loans & mdash; 24 agreements, 17 deal with oil and gas transit. With Ukraine, Russia basically negotiated the supply of various goods & mdash; there are 17 conventions dedicated to this.

In fourth place Armenia & mdash; 161 contracts. With this former Soviet republic, Russia has concluded more agreements on military cooperation than with any other state, & mdash; 34 (Armenia is a strategic ally of Russia, is a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organization).

161 agreements were also signed with China. Most often, Moscow and Beijing agreed on the demarcation of borders and holding summit meetings & mdash; 14 times.

Next come Kyrgyzstan (154), Uzbekistan (121), Tajikistan (120), Moldova (87).

The United States is in tenth place with 82 agreements. Most of all, Moscow and Washington concluded treaties in the field of peaceful atom and space & mdash; 12 and nine, respectively. Six more bilateral agreements (more than with any other country) were concluded on disarmament.

The first European country in the top of Russian counterparties is in 16th place & mdash; this is France. It has signed 70 agreements, mainly in the field of peaceful nuclear energy, technical cooperation and debt collection. Russia has slightly fewer agreements with the partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia & mdash; 66 and 65 respectively.

Treaty Decade

The main purpose of the study of the Center for Social Development was to show, in the context of the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the USSR, “ how analysis of data on contracts can help to see interesting patterns in the development of our bilateral relations, '' explained Oleg Shakirov, senior expert of the center, to RBC.

The CPDD also traced the dynamics of the conclusion of agreements over the decades. In the first ten years of the existence of the Russian Federation, the top three in terms of the number of agreements concluded were Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. China closed the top ten. This period was one of the most active in terms of concluding international agreements & mdash; 929 only with countries from the top 10.

In the next decade, their number fell by more than half – & mdash; up to 414. Kazakhstan (moved to the first place), Ukraine (second) and Belarus remained in the three main contractors of Russia. But China has risen to fourth place, “ which reflects the course towards the development of multilateral partnerships with Beijing, '' experts say. The top 10 includes two non-CIS countries & mdash; Vietnam and the United States (eighth and ninth places), while Uzbekistan, Moldova and Georgia have ceased to be the most visible partners of Russia. After Russia recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia in 2008, the development of diplomatic relations with these republics began, and Abkhazia took the sixth place in terms of the number of agreements signed in the second decade.

In the 2010s, 393 agreements were signed in the top 10 countries. Ukraine dropped out of the top ten: if in 2012 & ndash; 2013, 17 bilateral agreements were concluded with it, then since 2014 & mdash; no one. In addition, many of the agreements concluded were terminated. Ukraine in general now has the lowest share of existing or temporarily applied contracts among those concluded & mdash; 130 out of 231 (56%). Belarus became the leader in terms of the number of agreements signed with Russia in the third decade, followed by Kazakhstan. China is among the three most notable counterparties of Russia, self-proclaimed South Ossetia is in the top 10, and from non-CIS countries & mdash; for the first time Serbia and Cuba.

The most active in the entire 30-year history of Russian diplomacy are the last three months of the year & mdash; October (511 contracts were signed in total), December (503 contracts) and November (479 contracts), and the least active – & mdash; August (200 contracts), January (266 contracts) and July (309 contracts).

The most popular spheres & mdash; air traffic (196), military cooperation (158), citizen travel (142), military-technical cooperation (133), arrears and peaceful atom (125 each). Also, Russia often concludes agreements on loans (108) and in the oil and gas sector (99).

Records of ratification

The moment a treaty is concluded does not mean the moment it enters into force: it must be ratified by parliament and signed by the president. On average, ratification of bilateral treaties with Russia takes almost two years, 653 days, the median being 447 days. However, on the most sensitive issues for Moscow, things often happen much faster. For example, at the beginning of this year, Russia ratified an agreement on the extension of the Treaty on the Reduction of Offensive Arms with the United States, and it took only three days from signing the extension documents with the American side to the publication of the federal law. This is an absolute record.

Russia also quickly ratified only the treaty with the Republic of Crimea on joining Russia. “ In 2014, first there was a referendum, then for a couple of days the Republic of Crimea was formally an independent state, and therefore an interstate agreement was signed with it, '' & mdash; recalled RBC Shakirov.

The agreement between Russia and Ukraine on the stay of the Russian Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine dated April 21, 2010, the so-called Kharkov agreements (13 days), a protocol on amending the agreement between the governments of Russia and Belarus on measures to regulate trade economic cooperation in the field of export of oil and oil products dated January 12, 2007 (19 days). This agreement was the result of the first major energy conflict between the countries. In addition, among the fastest ratified treaties & mdash; protocol on amendments to the agreement between the governments of Russia and Ukraine on visa-free travel of citizens of the two countries dated January 16, 1997 (20 days) and the agreement on the creation of the Union State of Russia and Belarus (29 days).

The longest ratification awaited an agreement with Turkmenistan on cooperation in the field of security & mdash; the process took 6423 days, or 17 years.

Separately, experts draw attention to the fact that for some unknown reason, Russia practically does not register treaties with the UN. This procedure is optional, but according to Art. 102 of the charter of the organization, if the treaty is not registered in it, then none of its parties can refer to such a treaty or agreement in any of the bodies of the United Nations. Since 1991, Russia has registered only seven agreements, Shakirov counted. All of them were concluded with two countries & mdash; with Belarus and Germany. According to the expert, the situation in this area is strikingly different from what it was before 1991. “ The USSR did it more or less regularly. The Russians registered the agreement for the last time in 2003. All other contracts after the collapse of the USSR were submitted for registration by our counterparties '', & mdash; he notes.

RBC sent a request to the Russian Foreign Ministry.

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Putin offered to revoke citizenship for serious crimes

According to the bill introduced by the President, citizens who have been admitted to Russian citizenship will be able to deprive it of them for crimes against the state and drug trafficking

A grave crime against the state may become a pretext for depriving naturalized citizens of Russian citizenship. The corresponding amendments are recorded in the draft federal law “ On Citizenship of the Russian Federation '', which was submitted to the State Duma for consideration by President Vladimir Putin.

“ The bill expands the list of crimes, the commission of which entails the termination of the citizenship of the Russian Federation. Along with crimes of a terrorist nature, the list includes some serious crimes against the state, as well as crimes in the field of trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances '', & mdash; said in the explanatory note to the document.

The draft law specifies that in case of termination of citizenship in connection with the commission of such crimes, the established ten-year period, after which it is impossible to make a decision on termination of citizenship, will not apply.

According to article 22 of the Federal Law “ On Citizenship of the Russian Federation '', the grounds for deprivation of citizenship may be:

  • obtaining it by providing deliberately false data;
  • refusal to take the oath;
  • committing and encouraging terrorist activities;
  • justifying or promoting terrorism;
  • organizing or participating in an illegal armed group;
  • organization of an extremist community and financing of extremist activities;
  • sabotage and espionage.

At the same time, according to Article 6 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, “ a citizen of the Russian Federation cannot be deprived of his citizenship or the right to change it. '' And those who were born in the republics of the former USSR and apply for Russian citizenship are exempted from the obligatory three-year residence in Russia until the moment of filing an application. Also, such applicants are not required to confirm the source of income.

At the end of September, the head of the Main Directorate for Migration Issues of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Valentina Kazakova, announced a record demand for Russian citizenship. According to her, more than half a million foreigners have received Russian citizenship since the beginning of the year.

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Novak announced the deadline for the completion of certification of “Nord Stream-2”

Photo: Natalya Muschinkina

Russian Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Novak said that the certification of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline intend to complete no later than the end of the first half of 2022. According to RBC, Novak noted that if European colleagues are interested, certification can be carried out faster and fuel supplies can be started earlier.

Prior to this, a Bundestag deputy from the Alternative for Germany party; Stefan Kotrets said that the contradictions between the positions of German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Foreign Minister Annalena Berbock on the gas pipeline speak of a crisis within the German government.

According to him, the Russian project was inflated from a private commercial process into a geopolitical problem only due to ideological considerations. The German government, as Cotrets pointed out, is divorced from reality, and this endangers not only the decades-old energy partnership between Germany and the Russian Federation, but also the stability of energy supplies to Europe.

Meanwhile, the terms of certification of Nord Stream are 2 & quot; for Russia, they are not fundamental, since there are alternative resources for pumping gas, said Vladimir Chizhov, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the EU. However, when pumping through other gas pipelines, gas will cost more and the pumping reliability will be lower. He also stressed that the question of the timing of certification of the gas pipeline & ndash; political, not technical or economic.

Источник www.mk.ru

Japan became the world record holder for healthy longevity of citizens

Photo: pixabay.com

Japan has set a world record for healthy longevity of citizens – the age up to which a person can do without someone else help and does not need care. This was reported by the Ministry of Labor, Health and Welfare of the country.

The age of healthy longevity in Japan was 75.5 years for women and 72.6 for men.

The indicator has increased over the last time, compared with 2016 by 0.59 years for women and 0.54 for men. And over 20 years, the age of healthy longevity for women in Japan increased by 2.73 years, for men by 3.28 years.

The ministry added that Japan also has the highest average life expectancy among the G7 countries. – women live on average 87.45 years, men – 81.41 years.

It is noted that the average life expectancy in developed countries is growing thanks to good medicine, an increase in living standards through improved nutrition, public hygiene and living environment.

Источник www.mk.ru

Javelin ATGM fails to penetrate the armor of the old Soviet T-64 tank – experts

During the tests of the Javelin anti-tank missile system conducted by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, the American missile hit exactly the tower, but could not penetrate the armor of the Soviet tank T-64. It inflicted non-critical damage.

According to experts interviewed by Avia.Pro, if we take into account the dynamic armor used on modern T-72s, it becomes clear that Javelin can only inflict cosmetic damage on it.

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Experts have noticed that the tank's visor grille is rather thin and is only point-welded. Therefore, the rocket reached the tower. However, even these tricks did not help – the video clearly shows that the hole shown by the Ukrainian Armed Forces is old.

“The way the damage to the T-64 tank was shown only in passing suggests that Kiev presented only another propaganda video. It is possible that under certain conditions Javelin will indeed be able to penetrate the armor of a tank, but even with such machinations it turned out to be very problematic, “the expert summed up.

The Javelin tests took place on December 23 as part of the exercises in Donbass. The video captures the moment when the missile is fired at the target, it does not hit the target and explodes further than the tank is.

Источник www.mk.ru

The Russian Embassy responded to the US State Department’s call for the release of Americans Whelan and Reed

The Russian Embassy in Washington has commented on the US State Department's call to release Trevor Reed and Paul Whelan from Russian prisons.

Photo: pixabay.com

The Russian Embassy in Washington has commented on the US State Department's call for the release from Russian prisons of Trevor Reed and Paul Whelan, who were convicted of using violence against police officers and espionage.

The department clarified that both Americans were arrested for committing serious crimes, in contrast to the citizens of Russia, who are very often detained and tried in America on far-fetched pretexts.

Publication on social networks posted in response to the post of State Department press secretary Ned Price, the Russian side accompanied with hashtags demanding freedom to Roman Selezneva, Konstantin Yaroshenko and Viktor Bout, who are currently in American prisons.

Источник www.mk.ru

State Duma deputies instead of a New Year’s corporate party went to the Khmeimim base

The Deputy Speaker of the State Duma spoke about the trip of the delegation to Syria

A delegation of State Duma deputies from the group for relations with the Syrian parliament visited this country on the eve of the New Year holidays. The main purpose of the visit is & ndash; humanitarian actions for Syrian children whose childhood was darkened by the war, as well as discussions with the Syrian authorities on issues of further interaction and the development of social and cultural ties. Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Sholban Kara-ool told the MK correspondent about the trip.

Photo courtesy of the State Duma press service

& ndash; Our visit to Syria on the eve of the New Year certainly made sense. After all, parliamentary diplomacy can sometimes be something that is inaccessible to official diplomacy. She is more flexible, multidirectional, more trusting. This is exactly what is needed in the East, which, as you know, is a “ delicate matter. ''

Now that the military phase of the Syrian operation is over, and relative peace has been returned to Syrian soil with the help of our military, it is important to feel what moods the Syrians are living in. The most different & ndash; from politicians and businessmen to ordinary hard workers and housewives. You need to know how they relate to the Russian presence, who we are in their eyes & ndash; reliable friends or fellow travelers until the first convenient fork.

And, of course, we all really wanted to talk with our military personnel serving at the Russian base Khmeimim, to support them at least with a kind word, with New Year's gifts. In addition, for me personally, as a citizen of my country, it was no less important to understand for myself how justified the risk to which they put their lives on a daily basis.

The answer is obvious: yes, our guys are not here in vain. It's not even about Russia's geopolitical interests. Everything is much simpler. The Syrian operation clearly showed the whole world that the Middle East, through the efforts of our Western “ partners '' turned into a factory for terrorist organizations of all stripes and styles. What is only ISIS (recognized as terrorist, banned in the Russian Federation. & Ndash; “ MK '' ).

Our guys were able to stop them, many gangs were liquidated at the root. Now attention. Of the tens of thousands of killed militants, about 4.5 thousand turned out to be from the CIS countries.

This is the confirmed data of our Ministry of Defense. Just imagine: a whole division of thugs trained in sabotage, targeting us, our families! It's scary even to think what they could have done if they were given the task to return to their homeland and continue their dirty business here.

So for me everything is very clear. Our guys, having won in Syria, saved both Russia and the world from at least 4.5 thousand terrorist attacks. It is clear that combat successes & ndash; not yet a final victory. They have yet to be consolidated with civil initiatives, and we can do that. Wherever we went, be it Afghanistan or other countries, our soldier not only protected, but also participated in the restoration of a peaceful life.

& ndash; I involuntarily compared the Khmeimim base with my service, which I had in the Soviet army. With all its advantages, with all its might, I must admit that in terms of everyday comfort for soldiers, today's Russian army has gone far ahead. Even outside their homeland, being, in fact, in combat conditions, our guys have everything they need for a full and safe rest. There is a process of improvement in all areas.

The Ministry of Defense encourages the rotation of the personnel of our group. For five years, more than 60 thousand soldiers and officers have been here, received real combat experience, mastered the latest weapons. Therefore, the ability to provide them with a decent life & ndash; this is an indispensable condition to devote more time to your work, to become real masters.

Photo courtesy of the press service of the State Duma

On the basis of Khmeimim, one can feel the desire to make life sound and economical. Even a park of local trees is growing, planted by our guys. In it & ndash; alley with monuments to great Russian commanders. We also added our contribution to the improvement of the base: palm tree. Great idea, I think. Wood & ndash; it is a symbol of life, life-giving power and fertility. This is what distinguishes the liberation army from the conquering ones.

I was very glad to see my fellow countrymen from Tuva, who are serving in Syria. Moreover, the commanders speak well of them: real warriors! It is what it is. To fight & ndash; it's in our blood. During the Great Patriotic War, the Germans called our cavalrymen the “ black death '' because they were so fearless. This means that the traditions of our ancestors are alive.

& ndash; Syria is diverse and multi-ethnic. Here, along with the Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, and settlers from neighboring territories live compactly & ndash; Turkmens, Greeks, Palestinians, Jews. Many religions and beliefs & ndash; Muslims, Orthodox Christians, Catholics. Muslims, in turn, are divided into Sunnis, Shiites, Ismailis, Alawites.

Photo courtesy of the State Duma press service

In general, you cannot say for everyone. But among those with whom we met on the trip, I did not see a single one who would be aggressive towards us. But I saw the inscriptions on residential buildings in Russian: “ Thank you, Russia. '' At the matinees that we held for Syrian children, we talked with their parents. Apart from words of gratitude, we heard nothing from them, not a shadow of discontent.

On the contrary, people talked about how to build a peaceful life, discussed our initiatives. For them, the help of Russia & ndash; this is a long-awaited chance to end the devastation and civil war that have lasted a whole decade.

Photo courtesy of the State Duma press service

Everyone here understands that as soon as we leave, the war will resume. Syria, rich in oil and gas, with its access to sea routes has always attracted other countries. Turks, Israelis and Iranians want their share here. It is no coincidence that the United States, which occupied the most fertile territories, climbed into Syria.

But only Russia, unlike all other interested parties, was able to end the war and enable the Syrians to live in peace. True, this world is still very fragile. You can feel it even in our embassy in Damascus: today it looks more like a well-fortified outpost than a diplomatic mission.

It is all the more important to tell compatriots how our diplomats and military men live and serve in Syria, that they put themselves at risk every day for the sake of our country, its interests and peace of mind.

& ndash; At a meeting with the President of Syria, I heard a very apt remark from him: “ Both Syria and Donbass '' two fronts of one war. '' You can't say more precisely. Indeed, both regions became victims of the same external manipulators, who have one goal: to seize the resources of these territories, to assert their military influence through them.

Photo courtesy of the press service of the State Duma

It is no coincidence that the social movement 'Donetsk Republic' signed an agreement on interaction and cooperation with the ruling party of Syria, Baath. There is no military motive here, and the document itself cannot be called diplomatic in the full sense. But this, on the one hand, is the sincere desire of people who know what war is to establish a peaceful life. On the other hand, & ndash; a clear sign to the West: the more impudent it gets into the life of other countries, the more it pushes them to rally, even if they have no common borders.

& ndash; Children. Despite all the hardships, they have not lost the ability to rejoice and know the value of a peaceful life. The Syrian children organized a concert for us, sang Russian songs, “ Katyusha '' … I even thought that they all speak Russian. But it turned out that they did not know the language, they just learned the texts. And this fact suggested that it was necessary to establish the study of the Russian language in Syrian schools.

Photo courtesy of the State Duma press service

We talked about this with President Assad, with members of the ruling party. They are all for. We agreed that every week videoconferences will be organized between the Syrian and Moscow schools in the Russian language.

In addition, our proposal for direct trade and economic contacts with the provinces of Syria was supported by a number of leaders of Russian regions. There is an interest in horizontal connections at the level of enterprises and public organizations. The more there are such ties, the stronger and deeper they will be, the firmer the guarantee that Syria will remain under the reliable protection of Russia, and it will not be torn apart by Western “ partners ''.

Источник www.mk.ru

Kedmi lists NATO bases threatening Russia for preemptive strike

Objects in Poland, Romania, the Baltics

To ensure its security, Russia can begin to act like Israel, which is launching preemptive strikes on those foreign military installations that pose a threat to its population. This was stated by Israeli diplomat and political scientist, former head of the Nativ special service Yakov Kedmi.

Photo: dvidshub.net

“I think the fact that Russia has now made its demands on NATO and the United States is somewhat similar to our policy when the problem must be solved before it starts, not after, ”said Yakov Kedmi on the air of the YouTube channel“ Soloviev Live ”.

As you know, Israel has repeatedly inflicted preemptive strikes against Iraqi and Iranian military installations, which, as it believes, threaten its security. This was the case, in particular, when the Israeli Air Force bombed a nuclear center in Iraq a week before the launch of the reactor. According to Kedmi, bombing a “hot” reactor is already dangerous for the population. ” Upon impact on an operating reactor, radiation could cover Baghdad.

In addition, Israel periodically inflicts missile and bomb strikes on Iranian military installations in Syria. “Israel is striking Iranian cargoes that are sent to Hezbollah in Lebanon,” the expert said. – … These are the types of weapons that we believe threaten us, our population. This is exactly what we are doing – everything that threatens the security of Israel, we suppress in the bud. ”

According to him, NATO already has facilities in Eastern Europe that threaten the security of Russia.

“ In this case, there are bases that threaten (Russia. – “MK”). The Romanian base is threatening. Air force bases in the Baltics are under threat. The base under construction in Poland is threatening, “Kedmi said.

It is known that a US missile defense (ABM) base has been commissioned in Romania. The construction of a similar US missile defense base in Poland is nearing completion. American interceptor missiles will be able to shoot down ballistic missiles launched from Russian territory. That is, they reduce the potential of a Russian retaliatory nuclear missile strike.

In addition, anti-missile launchers are versatile and can be used to launch medium-range ballistic and nuclear cruise missiles. At the same time, the flight time of these missiles, for example, to Moscow is a matter of minutes.

According to Kedmi, the strategic threat from certain NATO facilities should be assessed by the Russian military department. He believes that so far there are no “bases in Ukraine that pose a threat to strategic Russia.” And Russian officials have spoken about this more than once.

The supply of American weapons to Ukraine may also pose a threat, especially if these weapons appear in Donbas. And here, according to Kedmi, everything will depend on what will be the position of Moscow in relation to the unrecognized republics. Will Russia limit itself only to their political and economic support, or will it consider it necessary to use military means to protect the population of Donbass from aggression from Kiev.

“Donbass is a territory inhabited by the Russian population, and which was administratively incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Republic” , – the expert expressed his opinion.

Источник www.mk.ru

“The dead no longer resist”: how Russia gained freedom of speech

Mikhail Fedotov: “I would liken the law” On Mass Media “to a broken in many places and badly burnt banner on an undefeated barricade”

“Censorship of the mass media … as well as the imposition of a ban on the dissemination of messages and materials … is not allowed …” 30 years ago, on December 27, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Russia adopted – and the President immediately signed – the law “On the Mass Media “. One of the authors of the law, ex-head of the HRC Mikhail Fedotov, tells in an interview with MK about how difficult the process of his birth was, what tests is being subjected to freedom of speech today.

Photo: Alexey Merinov

Fedotov Mikhail Alexandrovich, was born in 1949 in Moscow. In 1972 he graduated from the law faculty of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov. In 1976-1990, he taught at the All-Union Correspondence Law Institute (now the OE Kutafin Moscow State Law University).

In September 1990, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Press and Information of Russia. From December 1992 to August 1993 – Minister of Press and Information of the Russian Federation. 1993-1998 – Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to UNESCO. 2010–2019 – Chairman of the Council under the President of the Russian Federation for the Development of Civil Society and Human Rights, Advisor to the President of the Russian Federation.

From 1998 to the present – Secretary of the Union of Journalists of Russia. Doctor of Law, Honored Lawyer of Russia.

Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

” With this project, you will be kicked out of your job at best, and jailed at worst. “

– Alive! For one simple reason: the dead no longer resist. And alive still resists. I would liken the Law on Mass Media to a broken banner in many places and a badly burnt banner on an undefeated barricade. This barricade is freedom of the media. No matter how they squeeze it, no matter how they try to cut it, it continues to resist.

– Resistance is expressed in the fact that there are different-minded media. All attempts to destroy free media only end in more and more of them. As with a puddle, which they try to trample with boots: it splashes, and many small puddles turn out.

– Let's say right away that the Russian Law on Mass Media is a direct descendant of the USSR Law “On the Press and Other Mass Media”. A descendant who has surpassed his parent. Well, the authors of both laws are the same. All the same “three heroes” or a company “for three”: Yuri Baturin, Mikhail Fedotov, Vladimir Entin. This was our personal initiative. And the reason, as often happens in our life, was the barbecue.

It was the spring of 1988. Yura Baturin and I decided to make a barbecue at the dacha. And while cutting firewood, I say: “Yura, have you heard that a plan of legislative work has recently been approved and there is a line like this:“ The USSR Law “On the Press and Other Mass Media”?

He says, “Yes, I know. Moreover, I even wrote a review of the official draft of this law ”. “Well, how,” I ask, “do you have an official project?” – “Nightmare!”. I say: “I see. Maybe we'll write our own project? ” He says: “Let's try!” project. My wife warned: “With this project, at best, you will be kicked out of your job, and at worst, they will be jailed.” But, thank God, neither one nor the other happened.

Two years later, on June 12, 1990, our project became the USSR Law “On the Press and Other Mass Media”. And after another one and a half, the law of the Russian Federation “On the Mass Media” was adopted.

Russian law, of course, is much more democratic than the union one. And it is much more technologically advanced. Allied was to a large extent a declaration. When it was adopted, the power of the Communist Party was still preserved in all its might. There were both the KGB and Glavlit, the main Soviet censorship agency.

Now there is none of this – neither the CPSU, nor the Glavlit, nor the Soviet Union. And the law “On Mass Media” exists. And I think this is a very important bridgehead that we must defend. As Yuri Baturin rightly noted, speaking at the HSE at a conference dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the law “On Mass Media”, freedom of the media is the most important freedom. If it is not there, then we will not even know about the infringement of other freedoms.

– In a sense, yes. I began to deal with this problem in my second year of the Faculty of Law of Moscow State University. Right from the middle of the second year I was kicked out of the day department for “standing near the building” of the Moscow City Court, where our fellow dissidents – Alik Ginzburg, Yuri Galansky, Alexei Dobrovolsky and Vera Lashkova were tried. It was the beginning of 1968.

I managed to get hooked on the evening department. But to study in the evening, you had to work. I was lucky: they hired me as a reporter for the information department in the newspaper Vechernyaya Moskva. Then I wrote a term paper on the topic: “Lenin on freedom of the press.” Then – “Lenin and the KPSS on freedom of the press”, then – “Actual problems of freedom of the press in the USSR.”

In 1976 I defended my Ph.D. thesis: “Freedom of the press – the constitutional right of Soviet citizens.” And in 1989 – his doctoral dissertation: “The Mass Media as an Institution of Socialist Democracy.” You can say that I am a singer of one song.

The interest of Baturin and Entin was also far from accidental. Both then worked at the Institute of State and Law. Yura dealt with, among other things, the history of tsarist censorship, Volodya specialized in legal regulation of the media in capitalist countries.

So the Law on Mass Media was written not by some profane, but by experts. We were – and still are – professionals in this area.

“We brought up to 50 brochures to the convention at one time”

– The miracle, firstly, was that such a law appeared for the first time in the history of Russia. Throughout our thousand-year history, there has been no law that would guarantee freedom of the media. I would not just proclaim – there were such declarations – but contained a mechanism for implementation: clearly explained how mass media are created, who journalists are, what their rights and obligations are, and so on.

It was also a miracle that the law was a draft written by three unknown jurists. Because the Central Committee of the CPSU prepared a completely different draft law of the USSR “On the press and other mass media”.

Another miracle is that we were able to publish our project as a separate brochure. We were lucky because it was at this time that Soviet publishing houses were allowed to publish books and brochures at the expense of the authors. Well, first of all, I meant literary works, of course. It never occurred to anyone that some crazy people would decide to publish the author's bill.

Glavlit was, of course, categorically against the publication of our project, but with the assistance of people who were good about our initiative – in particular, an assistant President of the USSR Shakhnazarov and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR Shevardnadze – managed to ensure that the censorship surrendered.

We were allowed to publish a brochure with a circulation of five thousand copies. Then such a circulation seemed scanty. And, as I understand it, our opponents thought: “Well, okay. Let them amuse their pride. ”

And we were not going to amuse our pride. We had a different, very specific goal. Yura and I had passes to the First Congress of People's Deputies (held from May 25 to June 9, 1989 in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. – “MK” ). It was forbidden to carry any briefcases or bags there, but no one was searched. Therefore, my wife sewed additional inner pockets into our jackets. We carried up to 50 brochures at a time. And they handed out, handed out …

However, at that time it was impossible to name our project unknown to anyone. It has already been printed by many youth newspapers. It all started in October 1988 – with the Estonian newspaper Spordileht, “Sports News”.

– Yes, in Estonian. Spordileht belonged to the Union of Journalists of the Estonian USSR, and with these guys I had good, friendly relations. They immediately agreed to publish our project, explaining that censorship in relation to publications in national languages ​​is not so strict. And then the principle worked: that once Glavlit passed, other newspapers could easily reprint. Censorship permission was no longer required in this case.

– Quite right.

– We had many allies: Boris Yeltsin, Andrei Sakharov, Gennady Burbulis, Yuri Afanasyev, Mikhail Poltoranin … I name only those to whom we handed over our project from hand to hand. Nikolai Fedorov, whom we knew very well from graduate school, was appointed chairman of the working group on the law on the press. We were invited to join the working group – and things went well.

– The Union law passed with very great difficulties. In the working group, our opponents were representatives of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Glavlit, GLAVPUR (Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and the Navy of the USSR. – “MK” ), The KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs … All these were people for whom the word “democracy” was not, to put it mildly, unambiguously positive. Therefore, each position had to be defended with battle.

There were often situations when we got together, looked at the text that was discussed at the last meeting of the working group, and saw there norms that were not agreed upon. We say: “Wait a minute, we agreed on something else.” – “Oh yes? Well, it must have been confused by the typists. ” This is how we learned that “politically literate typists” were working behind our back.

And when the law passed the first reading, the deputies were given a different version altogether. It was pure forgery. The text repeated our project verbatim, with the exception of a few subtle amendments. But they changed the meaning of the bill 180 degrees.

I remember they asked me: “Does this project look like yours?” I replied: “Of course, like a dead person – to a living one.” For example, in our project it was said that the founders of the media, in addition to parties and public associations, can be “citizens of the USSR.” In the revised version, all the words were the same, but without the word “citizens.”

– No! There was a big scandal at the meeting of the Supreme Soviet. And as a result, the option was voted with a citizen as the founder of the media. There were many other intrigues, and petty scams, and funny stories … In fact, how this law was adopted is a good plot for a television series. And the fact that it all ended in the end with the victory of freedom over censorship was, of course, a real miracle.

Mikhail Fedotov, Vladimir Entin, Yuri Baturin, 1989. PHOTO: Journalist magazine, 1989, # 3

“When I rushed to the White House, half of the amendments had already been adopted”

– Yes, there were much fewer problems with him. We already had the “small land” we had conquered – the Union law. It was much easier to launch an offensive from this bridgehead. In addition, we wrote the Russian draft not on the balcony, but in my office at the Ministry of Press of Russia – I was then Deputy Minister.

That is, our initiative author's draft was almost official. No other simply existed. Therefore, we wrote it with great pleasure, realizing that we can count on the support of the parliament and the president.

The first reading of the law generally passed without a hitch, without a hitch. But when it was accepted in the second, final reading, problems still arose. The discussion was scheduled for December 19, at 4 pm. It was by this time that I planned to come to the White House for a plenary session of parliament.

However, Khasbulatov changed the agenda. Somewhere around noon, an alarmed Igor Eremin, chairman of the parliamentary committee on mass media, phoned me: “Come soon, there is a discussion of the draft law“ On mass media ”. I already spoke. We started voting on the amendments. ”

When I rushed to the White House, half of the amendments had already been adopted. And including very dangerous amendments. When the law passed through the parliamentary media committee, they were all rejected. And then suddenly they began to pass.

For example, the amendment introduced by the Prosecutor General Valentin Stepankov. According to our project, the journalist and the editorial office are obliged to keep the source of information secret – except for cases when the request to disclose the source came from the court. In the amendment, the court was supplemented by the prosecutor, the investigator and the person conducting the inquiry.

That is, the question was relegated practically to the level of a precinct. Imagine, a district police officer comes to the editorial office and says: “Well, quickly answer, where did you get this information from? Who gave it to you? ” Well, what then is the price of the secrecy of the source of information? A penny!

The second dangerous amendment concerned hidden audio and video recordings. We had an article that said under what conditions it is possible to distribute materials made with a hidden camera. There were certain requirements that had to be met.

But the deputy Viktor Veremchuk introduced an amendment, the meaning of which was reduced to the fact that the hidden recording is prohibited. Any. Video, audio, photo – you can't do anything. Forbidden – that's all. And this amendment also passed.

We, naturally, were outraged by these amendments. We published an open letter to the deputies and asked Yeltsin to veto the law. We were supported not only by the democratic community, but also by practically all our fellow journalists. It was that rare case when corporate solidarity worked.

Yeltsin then publicly stated that if the Supreme Soviet did not return the law to its original state, he would not sign it. Under this pressure, the Russian parliament returned to considering the law and removed these two amendments.

There were also amendments that were not dangerous, but rather stupid. For example, the one according to which erotic publications must be sold in sealed bags. This amendment was also adopted. But I managed to get the deputies to return to it and clarify: in transparent packages.

If it were not for the word “transparent”, a loophole would be created for fraudsters. You buy a Playboy magazine at a newsstand, get a sealed envelope, bring it home, open it, and there – the Pravda newspaper.

– Then there were also many guardians of morality. But society is diverse, people have different interests. Some people like Playboy magazine, some don't. If you don't like it, buy the Pravda newspaper and other publications. The choice should be free.

Parliament returned to discussing the media law on the last day of its autumn session, December 27, 1991. The agenda was huge, and the turn came to the law “On Mass Media” at about half past nine in the evening. The deputies were exhausted, everyone was in a suitcase New Year's mood … And this saved the freedom of the Russian press.

Mikhail Fedotov, Vladimir Entin, Yuri Baturin, 2019. A PHOTO from the personal archive of Mikhail Fedotov

“No one can be sure that they will not be recognized as a foreign agent”

– Let me remind you that, answering your first question, I compared the law “On Mass Media” with a flag pierced in several places. So, the rule about foreign agents is just one of these holes. Initially, there was nothing of the kind in the law. This amendment, which was introduced in 2017 and amended in 2019, shows that its authors were completely unaware of the law they amended.

– No, I have no information. But at our conference at the Higher School of Economics (dedicated to the anniversary of the law “On the Media.” >Generic concept here: “mass media”. Species – “foreign media”. What is “foreign media”? This is written in the law – however, it applies to print media. This is a periodical printed publication that is not registered in Russia and which is either financed from abroad, or the editorial office is located abroad.

Further: you take the concept of a foreign media and add a criterion there that allows you to single out from the whole multitude of foreign media those that we want to stigmatize. It is easy to do this, guided by Article 55 of the Law “On Mass Media”. It says here that if in some country discriminatory rules are applied against Russian journalists, then the Russian government has the right to impose retaliatory restrictions.

Let's remember how the history of foreign media agents began. It all started with the unfriendly actions of the American administration, which forced Russia Today to register as a foreign agent. In principle, in order to respond to this step, it was not even necessary to change the law “On Mass Media”. You could get off with a government decree or presidential decree.

And it was possible to make amendments and determine that a foreign media outlet will be recognized as performing the functions of a foreign agent if it is financed by a foreign state, on whose territory the Russian media are discriminated against.

That's all. It's very simple: they discriminate against the Russian media in the United States – we are retaliating against the American media funded from the state budget.

– No, this is the sphere of international relations. The principle of reciprocity is at work here. You expelled two diplomats from us – we expelled two diplomats from you. This principle has been established for millennia, no one has canceled it. You can use it, you can – not use it. Sometimes it is better not to use it. We can recall the story of Russian diplomats who were expelled from America by Obama. Putin reacted in a non-standard way: he invited the children of American diplomats to the Kremlin for the New Year tree. This is much more elegant than a mirrored answer.

– Yes, with the media it turned out not at all elegant. The norms on foreign media-foreign agents are vague, contradictory, legally illiterate. Among other things, the principle of administrative discretion applies here, that is, administrative discretion: whoever they want is recognized as a foreign media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent. This is the very same legal uncertainty that has been repeatedly condemned by the Constitutional Court.

The muse of legislation requires mathematical precision and does not tolerate fuss. Here everything is subject to the logic of law. If you construct a rule from vague or inappropriate legal concepts, then it will not work properly. In this case, our entire institution of foreign agents – and even more so foreign media-foreign agents – is a legal gibberish.

I know how the head of state understands the task of this institution: to prevent foreign interference in internal affairs. But the execution turned out to be inadequate to the goal. As a result, no one can be sure that they will not be recognized by the foreign media performing the functions of a foreign agent. And this is lawlessness, arbitrariness.

– For, in my opinion, a whole year, if not more, these norms were applied adequately, as planned, in relation to the American media, financed from the state budget: Voice of America, Radio Liberty and all its projects … Everything is clear and logical here, including from the point of view of Article 55 of the Law on Mass Media. But then the dimensionlessness of the norm affected, and the circle of foreign media-foreign agents began to expand and expand … Why, where?

– Absurd, of course. Could it have been done normally, competently? Can. I have already named one of the options. It is also important to note that neither a legal entity nor an individual can be recognized as a foreign media-inotent, since the media, according to the law, is a form of periodic dissemination of mass information.

For example, Lev Ponomarev (recognized as a foreign media, acting as a foreign agent. – “MK” ) well, it cannot be a form of dissemination of mass information. He is an individual, he is a subject of law, and form is always an object. For a qualified lawyer, these are elementary things.

If all this is observed, you can make a completely worthy law. The same applies to the institution of NPOs performing the functions of a foreign agent. Here, too, everything can be done reasonably. Take the Civil Code – those rules that describe agency relationships, which define what an agent is, what a principal is. Link this with political activity – and you will get a completely operational concept in which there will be no uncertainty.

When individuals or organizations lobby for the interests of a foreign state, receiving monetary reward for this, they are certainly agents of this the state. And when, for example, an organization defends the rights of Russian prisoners who are beaten and raped in colonies, then, even if it receives foreign funding, what kind of a foreign agent is it?

Is it acting in the interests of a foreign power? No, she acts in the interests of the citizens of our country. Albeit with foreign money. Let's say thanks to those who give this money.

– Of course. Everything should be built in a single legal logic. And now all this is absolute legal nonsense.

Cover of the brochure with the text of the draft law, published by its authors in 1989.

“No country should be proud of the destruction of freedom of the media”

– A lot, that's right. But besides that, there is also preliminary censorship. For example, videos posted on YouTube video hosting are checked for copyright compliance, for compliance with community rules, that is, the internal rules of the Network. If the resource algorithm concludes that you have violated these rules, your video will be blocked.

I can tell you that I myself suffered from this. I wanted to post a video on my YouTube account of how the whole family bathed our newborn grandson. The first bath is a very important thing in the life of every person. But YouTube blocked this video.

– As they say, there are two big differences. A social network is not a newspaper, but a fence on which we hang our ads, posters, pictures, notes. Yes, the owner of the fence may require that they do not write on it with obscenities. But as for everything else, he cannot interfere. In any case, it shouldn't.

Answering your question, I will say that the concept of censorship, which is given in the Law on Mass Media, certainly needs to be adjusted. But I ask our deputies not to rush into this. I can guess how they will clarify. No, if so, then you better not.

– You know, here is the same story about which Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy wrote in his novel “Anna Karenina”: “All happy families are alike, every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” All unhappy media are unhappy in their own way. Everyone has their own problems, their own Achilles' heels, their own scores with the authorities. I don't see any universal solution to this problem.

But the fact that the state is objectively interested in protecting independent media is quite obvious to me. Therefore, I would very much like the respected Roskomnadzor in his annual public reports to talk about how it protects freedom of the media in our country, how it defends the rights of journalists, how it helps independent media.

Today, to Unfortunately, nothing is written about it there. But the predecessor of Roskomnadzor was called the State Inspectorate for the Protection of Freedom of the Press and Mass Media.

– Well, if we allow our legislator to further worsen the law “On Mass Media”, he will do it. And if we force him to act in the opposite direction, then maybe we will succeed. In any case, I remember the behest of Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava: “Do not give up your efforts, maestro.” I don’t know if we are a maestro or not, but we don’t give up our efforts.

I don’t remember the Turkmen law right away, but I remember the Belarusian one quite well: there are much fewer guarantees of freedom of the media than in the Russian one. Unfortunately, almost nothing is left of freedom of the media in Belarus. And it was destroyed, including on the basis of this law. Russian law is much more liberal.

– Yes, despite all the “holes”. By the way, I would like to recall the words of Putin, said by him in the mid-2000s. He then proudly said that the Russian law “On Mass Media” is considered one of the most liberal in the world. I would very much like our law to regain this status. To be proud of democratic institutions is a legitimate pride. No country should be proud of the destruction of freedom of the media, especially a country that calls itself in the Constitution a democratic rule-of-law state.

Источник www.mk.ru

Complex lunch with Putin: outwardly delicious, inside – so-so

President's News of the Week

One of the amazing problems of our mass public conscience is the problem of a complex meal, which has not yet been eliminated. This is when, if you like borscht, you cannot refuse jelly. (We voted for the Constitution according to this scheme, if you remember.) Therefore, as soon as a person declares his support for Putin, he immediately turns out to be a supporter of the war with Ukraine and the retrograde. And vice versa – if a person does not support Putin, then he is against Russia, a foreign agent and, most likely, sodomite.

It was quite possible to practice finding a middle way last week.

Vladimir Putin's big final press conference, 23.12.2021. Photo: Natalia Gubernatorova

Why it took so long to identify our interests in the post-Soviet space is a separate, large and complex question. But, nevertheless, thank God, Putin finally said clearly and distinctly: this is all, what used to be the Soviet Union (with the exception of the Baltic States, he briefly let it slip at a press conference about 12 republics), this is ours, don’t fuss … You will get a donut hole, not Ukraine into NATO. And he confirmed it with a salvo launch of Zircon missiles.

But if on the outer track you can't get enough of it, then on the inner track, not everything is so simple.

Vladimir Vladimirovich not only speaks, but also congratulates everyone on the record in Russia in terms of housing commissioning. But for some reason, the next day the numbers appear: in 2021, there are no regions left in Russia where the average term of a newly taken mortgage is less than 18 years. And in 2022 the term of the average mortgage loan will reach 23 years – almost a third of the average life expectancy of Russians. And this is a consequence of the rise in prices for housing in the absence of growth in incomes of citizens. Although, logically, the more housing there is, the cheaper it should be.

Vladimir Vladimirovich did not answer the question of whether the state would pay under the guarantees that were given against the loans attracted by Rusnano (Chubais). The bosses there made very good money, fled, and the company was in debt as if in silks. First Deputy Prime Minister Andrei Belousov later answered instead of Putin. He said that Rusnano will be supported by the government – according to him, the authorities have already drawn up a concrete plan for resolving the current situation. That is, the budget (you and I) simply paid for the enrichment of a handful of people again.

But these are questions of the scale of the country.

But why exactly should Putin solve the problem of supporting the creators of unique exoskeletons near Volgograd? This is a cool thing, thanks to which the girl, who could not hold a spoon, became the Paralympic swimming champion. Is it Putin who heads the Ministry of Health in our country?

Why is Vladimir Vladimirovich's intervention necessary to start trains from Yoshkar-Ola not only to Moscow, but also to other cities? After all, literally in a couple of days, it was decided to launch the trains – there was no need to build any junction, it was only necessary to listen and satisfy the needs of people.

Why is the president's intervention needed to eliminate the accident at the TPP-1 in Ulan-Ude? Yes, major accident, serious situation. But isn't the authorities of Buryatia able to cope on their own? What does Putin have to do with it?

But without such management surrealism begins in general. In Kuzbass, after a terrible accident, it was decided, as part of the struggle for security, to introduce … the oath of a miner. Right in the presence of working comrades, the miner will swear to be worthy of the profession, strive to create the safest working conditions in the workplace, not to allow accidents and accidents to be hidden, and so on. This, according to local authorities, will increase the responsibility of miners. Well, now the explosions in mines will stop because of the actions of their owners?

An entrepreneur Diana Kaledina was detained in Moscow this week. She once founded a company that, as they say, stood at the origins of the revival of the domestic machine tool industry. After the arrest with the revival, much became clear – Kaledin is suspected of supplying defense enterprises with Chinese machine tools under the guise of Russian, and even at an inflated cost.

Another company boasted that it had released new small unique drones to survey hard-to-reach places – for example, bridges, nuclear power plants or launch pad for space rockets. Breakthrough and innovation! But only the most famous Chinese shopping site sells exactly the same ones for about 4 thousand rubles.

This is where the common man should go? On the one hand, manual oligarchic capitalism, on the other, NATO is advancing. Of course, under such conditions, a complex lunch is easier. It's just that I'm already sick …

Источник www.mk.ru

Kiev predicted the offensive of Moscow: the majority of women will be sent to the army

Russian troops will go from Azov, Ukraine believes

Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmitry Kuleba told The Washington Post that Russia dominates the Sea of ​​Azov and can use it as a theater of the military action. At the same time, the minister is sure that Moscow must be constantly contained, otherwise it will threaten not only Ukraine, but also the European Union. MK experts appreciated the minister's words and how Kiev is preparing for the Russian invasion.

Ukrainian women have been put under gun. Photo: president.gov.ua

In August 2021, Kuleba already said that the Sea of ​​Azov was lost to Ukraine. Moreover, he predicted that Kiev would also lose the Black Sea if Russia continued to concentrate its armed forces in Crimea. In this regard, Kuleba called on the West for new joint efforts in the region, which, on the one hand, will be aimed at demilitarizing Crimea, and on the other, at building up Ukraine's military power.

Kiev has been moving in this direction for a long time. For example, in 2020, the Ukrainian authorities purchased 52 warships from the UK, including 5 corvettes, 8 missile boats, 39 patrol boats. In December 2021, in cooperation with Great Britain, two naval bases began to be built in Berdyansk and Ochakov.

At the same time, in the spring and winter of 2021, Western countries accused Russia of concentrating their troops near the Ukrainian border, which, according to in their opinion, it could indicate the aggressive plans of Moscow. In turn, the Russian authorities accused Kiev of concentrating troops in Donbass, which, in their opinion, could prove the impending attack on the DPR and LPR. However, in both cases, nothing of the kind happened.

Despite this, State Duma Deputy Mikhail Delyagin is confident that in February or March 2022, Ukraine may no longer attack Donetsk and Lugansk, but Russia. Among the goals of Kiev, according to the politician, may be Crimea, Rostov-on-Don, Belgorod and Bryansk.

“Today Ukraine, in fact, does not have a navy in the Sea of ​​Azov, except for boats. Moreover, when Kiev sent its fleet there through the Kerch Strait, it ended with their detention and a loud scandal. In this regard, there is a rational kernel in Kuleba's speech, its essence boils down to pedaling Ukraine in the world information agenda, and not to changing the balance of power in the region. Nevertheless, given the difficult relations between Russia and Ukraine, new provocations are possible in the Sea of ​​Azov. For example, citing weather conditions, Moscow may prohibit Ukrainian ships from passing through the Kerch Strait. To avoid this, Kiev is actually doing nothing, except that the other day the Ministry of Defense decided to distribute military cards to the majority of women, “Kirill Molchanov, deputy head of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics, told MK.

In turn, the head of the Ukrainian Politics Foundation, Konstantin Bondarenko, believes that the current Ukrainian authorities do not form their own vision of Ukraine's future at all. “Official Kiev in this matter adheres exactly to the opinion that is shared by official London and Washington. If they say that Ukraine is on the verge of war with Russia, then we readily agree with this. This winter was the only case since 2014 when the Ukrainian authorities violated this rule. The Americans said that Russia was concentrating its troops on the Ukrainian border, while the Main Intelligence Directorate of the Ukrainian Defense Ministry said it was not observing anything like this. Several days passed, and the scouts “saw”. Apparently, someone knocked them on the head, “Bondarenko believes.

According to the political scientist, the West is trying to turn Ukraine into” anti-Russia “and into its outpost on the eastern borders. At the same time, Ukrainian interests are not taken into account in this context. “For example, bases in Ochakov and Berdyansk are being built with the participation of Great Britain. This is not done as part of a humanitarian mission, but in order for the British military to gain a foothold in Ukraine. Since the Constitution of Ukraine prohibits the construction of foreign military bases, it was decided to build bases for joint use. In the future, they will be used as triggers to destabilize the situation in Russia, ”Bondarenko concluded.

Источник www.mk.ru

Monuments to Soviet soldiers removed from Poland: before and after restoration

Monuments to Soviet soldiers exported from Poland: before and after restoration

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archives/Laguna

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archives/Laguna

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archives/Laguna

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

© AiF/Georgy Zotov

© From personal archive/Laguna company

Источник aif.ru

Barclay de Tolly – the savior of Russia? Why is his memory offensive

260 years & nbsp; ago, December 27, 1761, in the & nbsp; family of & nbsp; Riga & nbsp; burghers & nbsp; born & nbsp; offspring & nbsp; ancient & nbsp; Scottish & nbsp; kind, which will be & nbsp; destined to become the savior of Russia.

At first glance, it seems that such a statement & ndash; just a set of words, contrary to logic and common sense. Nevertheless, everything is correct. You just need to know the name of the newborn. And it's simple. At birth, the boy was named Michael Andreas . His father also bore a double name & ndash; Weingold Gotthard … Gotthard is usually translated as “mighty by God.” When Russifying the patronymic, I had to cheat a little and choose the closest equivalent & ndash; Bogdan, that is, “ given by God. '' This is how Mikhail Bogdanovich turned out. Surname & ndash; Barclay de Tolly .

Yes, his lineage did indeed go back to the Scottish nobles from Aberdeenshire. One of the Barclays in the 17th century was forced to flee from Cromwell and a donkey in Riga. His descendants became Germanized and became burghers. So everything is clear with the first two characteristics of our hero. But what about the definition of “ savior of Russia '' fierce disputes still arise.

The name of Barclay de Tolly in our minds is firmly tied to the Patriotic War of 1812, but the stable phrase “ Hero of the War of the Twelfth Year '' it does not belong to it. Is that with a proviso, they say, the hero & ndash; in the sense of a character. No more. Because who are the real heroes? Right. Mikhail Kutuzov, about whom it is known that he “ came to beat the French ''. And Pyotr Bagration , whose surname, with the light hand of the poet Gabriel Derzhavin , acquired a truly epic character: “ He is God of rati. ''

Barclay was also honored with the national perpetuation of his surname. But in such a way that it would be better if it did not exist at all. After the retreat and surrender of Smolensk to the 1812 campaign, some witches changed the name of the commander as follows: “ She talks, and that's all. '' You can vouch – this “ funny '' the episode will surely sound at a school lesson on the theme of the Patriotic War of 1812

It is not surprising that with such an attitude to the merits and memory of Barclay, they tried to steal him from Russia. And not without success. In 1841, with great fanfare, German nationalists erected his bust in Valhalla & ndash; the hall of fame of the Germanic people, which is near the city of Regensburg. The Germans were able to appreciate the greatness of the commander. Russian contemporaries & ndash; no. Among the Russians of the 19th century, there was only one who stood up for Mikhail Bogdanovich. True, little sense came out of this, although the intercessor for Barclay was none other than Alexander Pushkin. But even the authority of The Sun of Russian Poetry turned out to be powerless before the “ voice of the people ''. During the life of Pushkin, from his poem “ The Russian Tsar has a chamber in his palaces '' removed one stanza. Here it is:
Your successor has acquired the hidden success
In your head. And you, unrecognized, forgotten
The hero of the occasion died. And in the hour of death
With contempt, perhaps, he remembered us.

These words about Barclay and his “ successor '', Kutuzov, terribly outraged public opinion. Kutuzov's descendants were especially indignant. How so? Who, according to Pushkin, is the savior of Russia? Is it really not Kutuzov, but some kind of foreigner? Who, moreover, did not give a single battle, but only retreated ingloriously?

However, Pushkin stood his ground and still partially managed to rectify the situation. The tenth chapter of the novel “ Eugene Onegin '' he never wrote. But he didn’t leave the idea, and did the sketches all the time. One of them is entrenched in the people's memory & ndash; he is often quoted when the reasons for the defeat of Napoleon in the Russian campaign are being investigated:

Thunderstorm of the twelfth year
It has come & ndash; Who helped us here?
The frenzy of the people,
Barclay, winter or Russian god?

According to the words of the Gospel, “ Let us leave God to God '' and deal with earthly affairs. According to Pushkin, three things helped Russia get rid of Napoleon. The Frenzy of the People – that is, subsequently sung by Tolstoy “ the cudgel of the people's war '' – once. Winter, or “ General Frost '', which is also the loudest claim on the losing side & ndash; two. Well, three & ndash; actually Barclay.

Upon closer examination, it suddenly turns out that the first two factors, whatever one may say, are closed on the figure of Barclay.

Let's start with winter. Of course, Mikhail Bogdanovich could not bring the cold weather closer. But it was he who, having become Minister of War in 1810 and possessing exhaustive intelligence from the service, which he himself created, developed a plan for the war with Napoleon. The plan of that very “ Scythian war ''. Retreat. Stretching communications. Disturbing blows. In the future & ndash; the escape of the enemy. This plan was just calculated for a long campaign, excluding a general engagement. Instead of carnage, it was assumed that the enemy was exhausted. Including due to forced wintering in unfavorable conditions.

However, the famous 'General Frost' hits everyone, no matter what they say in Europe about the “ unique abilities of the Russian barbarians sleeping in the snow and fighting with a drekol ''. With all due respect to the Russian soldier, he never possessed such magical qualities. He, like everyone else, needs warm clothes, good food, and modern weapons.

Barclay, as Minister of War, took care of one and the other, and the third. From 1810 to 1812 at the insistence of Barclay, spending on military purposes increased sharply & ndash; they accounted for more than half of the entire state budget. Enormous reserves of food, weapons and uniforms were created. Particular attention was paid to winter clothing.

And no wonder. Because literally the day before, in 1809, Barclay arranged a grandiose rehearsal for the correct winter war. It was he who during the Russian-Swedish war of 1808-1809. proposed to raise troops directly from winter quarters and throw them across the ice of the bay, first to the Aland Islands, and then to Stockholm. The commander-in-chief of the Russian army, General Bogdan Knorring , in horror reported to the tsar about the “ madness '' his subordinate: “ Sovereign! The battalions are not frigates, and the Cossacks are not shebeks to walk the bays! '' But the emperor unexpectedly liked Barclay's idea.

250 versts & nbsp; by & nbsp; icy & nbsp; desert. Five & nbsp; transitions. Five & nbsp; overnight stays, during & nbsp; time & nbsp; which & nbsp; were not & nbsp; allowed & nbsp; even & nbsp; make & nbsp; fires that & nbsp; can & nbsp; unmask. On the & nbsp; question: “ And & nbsp; how & nbsp; do we & nbsp; warm ourselves? & Raquo; & nbsp; imperturbable & nbsp; Barclay & nbsp; replied: “ You can & nbsp; jump. '' However, not & nbsp; so & nbsp; too & nbsp; strongly & nbsp; and & nbsp; were freezing. At & nbsp; insistence & nbsp; Barclay & nbsp; provisions & nbsp; was & nbsp; taken & nbsp; corresponding & nbsp; & ndash; & nbsp; crackers, bacon & nbsp; and & nbsp; vodka.

The success was complete. When the Russian Cossacks appeared in the vicinity of Stockholm, Sweden surrendered. There was every reason to believe that a properly equipped Russian soldier would be able to squeeze out of winter the maximum benefit for himself and the maximum harm to the enemy during the campaign of 1812.

The same can be said about the “ frenzy of the people. '' It flared up little by little during the retreat of Barclay. And it reached its climax after the surrender of Moscow.

This is where the trap lies. After the fact, everyone admits that the idea of ​​a “ Scythian war '' was, in general, correct. And the surrender of Moscow to Napoleon & ndash; especially.

Let's compare two quotes.

First: “ With the loss of Moscow, Russia is not lost yet. But when the army is destroyed, both Moscow and Russia will perish. ''

Second: “ Moscow & ndash; no more than a point on the map of Europe. I will not make any movement for this city that could endanger the army, since it is necessary to save Russia and Europe, not Moscow. ''

It may seem that one person is speaking. However, in fact, the first phrase belongs to Kutuzov, and the second & ndash; just to Barclay.

It is generally accepted that the authorities can make mistakes, but the people & ndash; never. However, there are exceptions. At that time, the authorities equally honored the memory of both commanders. On December 25, 1837, on the day of the celebration of the quarter-century anniversary of Napoleon's expulsion from Russia, two monuments were unveiled in St. Petersburg. One & ndash; Kutuzov. The second & ndash; Barclay. And what about the people?

Here it would be most appropriate to quote again Pushkin, whose words, unfortunately, are true to this day: “ Do we really have to be ungrateful to the merits of Barclay de Tolly because Kutuzov is great? You say that his merits were recognized, appreciated, and awarded. So, but by whom and when? Certainly not by the people and not in 1812. ''

Источник aif.ru

Turkey delivered Bayraktars to Gambia

A pair of Turkish Air Force Airbus A400M Atlas military transport aircraft arrived in Gambia.

On board, presumably, the first batch of Bayraktar TB2 attack UAVs for this African country.

Also in October, a pair of heavy transport aircraft Airbus A400M of the Turkish Air Force arrived in Gambia with an unknown cargo on board.

Back in January In 2020, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan visited the African country.

At the end of September 2021, after a course of special training, a group of local security officials, trained in Turkey as instructors, returned to their homeland.

Источник www.mk.ru

Danish prisoners sent to Kosovo

The Danish authorities rented a prison for 300 places from Pristina, because the institutions in the kingdom are already overcrowded

Denmark will pay an annual fee of € 15 million (£ 12.8 million) over an initial five-year period, and will also help fund clean energy in the country.

Rented cells are intended to house convicted criminals from non-EU countries who must be deported from Denmark after sentencing.

Danish law will apply to all prisoners in rented cells.

There are 700 to 800 in Kosovo unused prison premises.

In a joint statement, it is said that on Monday the governments of the two countries signed a “political a declaration of intent, which is designed for an initial period of five years.

Источник www.mk.ru

British Interior Minister Hinds calls Russia “a hostile state”

Photo: pixabay.com

UK Security Secretary Damian Hinds, in an interview with the Telegraph newspaper, named countries that are” hostile “according to relation in the United Kingdom. According to him, these are China, Russia and Iran.

“These three countries have human potential and can provide a presence on a large scale. They carry out a variety of information operations in which a huge number of different ways are involved. It is difficult to voice an exhaustive list, “Hinds said.

The publication clarified that the list of states named by Hinds can be interpreted as follows: the presence of spies and the military in a state of readiness, conducting disinformation campaigns and cyberattacks.

Источник www.mk.ru

American professor recognizes Russia as a superpower: rumors of decline are groundless

According to The Hill, American professor of McAlester College in Minnesota, Andrew Lethem, who studies international relations, said that Russia in the international arena, no matter what Western politicians say, is certainly a superpower.

photo pexels.com

According to an international expert, all attempts by the Western press to convince the world community that the Russian Federation is in decline are fake and completely are untenable.

“The tales of Russia's collapse have been spreading with remarkable consistency since the collapse of the USSR three decades ago … The successor state of the Soviet Union has regularly been characterized as a” fading “,” former power “and” power in decline ” … But these characteristics are misleading, “wrote Lethem in his article.

He stressed that all talk about Russian decline is a myth.

“Russia is a superpower to be reckoned with,” he summed up.

Источник www.mk.ru

Hydrometeorological center extended yellow hazard level in Moscow

The press service of the Hydrometeorological Center announced the extension of the “ yellow '' the level of weather hazard in Moscow and the Moscow region due to icy conditions.

“ Yellow & mdash; the weather is potentially dangerous '', & mdash; it says in the data of the forecast map on the institution's website.

The ice warning in Moscow and the Moscow region is valid until 12.00 on December 28.

Previously, & nbsp; the leading employee of the Phobos weather center; Evgeny Tishkovets & nbsp; said that in the & nbsp; sky over Moscow & nbsp; in conditions of 20-degree frost and high air humidity, so-called diamond dust appeared.

Recall, & nbsp; Wednesday, December 22, & nbsp; became & nbsp; the coldest in the afternoon & nbsp; in Moscow for the entire history of meteorological observations at VDNKh, which have been conducted since 1948.

Источник aif.ru

The Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces announced the completion of the state tests of “Uran-9”

The Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation, Oleg Salyukov, announced the completion of state tests of the Uranium-9 strike robot, writes Krasnaya Zvezda.

“ In the interests of the Ground Forces, combat robotic systems have been developed Uranium-9 and Kungas. They passed state tests and this year were used during the SSU (joint strategic exercises) West-2021, & mdash; he said.

It is noted that the operators positively assessed their capabilities with remote control.

Several more robotic systems are being developed for the Russian army, Salyukov added.

Earlier it was reported that the Russian military used Uran-9 reconnaissance and fire support robots for the first time; and 'Nerekhta' in the combat formations of combined arms subunits. This was reported by the Ministry of Defense.

So, “ Uranus '' within the framework of the strategic exercises “ West-2021 '' suppressed manpower and armored vehicles of a simulated enemy at a distance of three to five kilometers, using missile systems “ Attack '', infantry rocket flamethrowers, 30-mm cannons and machine guns.

Источник aif.ru

First death of omicron patient recorded in Australia

Plot The spread of a new strain of coronavirus “omicron”

The NSW Department of Health announced that Australia's first death from the new omicron coronavirus strain recorded in the city of Sydney, RIA Novosti reports.

It is reported that an 80-year-old man died from the effects of infection. He was previously vaccinated with two doses of COVID-19 vaccine, “ but he had concomitant health problems. ''

A man is known to have contracted the coronavirus in a nursing home.

Previously, omicron- the coronavirus strain has become dominant in the United States. Over the past week & nbsp; 73.2% of all new & nbsp; COVID-19 cases in the country & nbsp; was & nbsp; & nbsp; omicron.

According to official data as of December 21, 41 cases of infection with the & nbsp; variant were registered in Russia. omicron. Earlier, the Ministry of Health & nbsp; stated that no other cases of the disease in the territory of the Russian Federation caused by the “ omicron '' were detected.

Источник aif.ru

Sergei Shoigu: “Let the rescuers be always ready for anything, but not needed”

30 & nbsp; years ago, 27 & nbsp; December 1990 & nbsp; g., the Rescue Corps was created in the USSR. Now he is & nbsp; known as the Ministry of Emergencies, one of the & nbsp; 5 & nbsp; most powerful rescue services in the world. The most knowledgeable person about & nbsp; those difficult years & nbsp; & mdash; current Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu . & nbsp;

“ Do you & nbsp; remember how it all began ''

Sergey Osipov, AiF.ru: & nbsp; Sergey Kuzhugetovich, how was the Rescue Corps created, from which the Ministry of Emergencies & nbsp; later grew?

Sergey Shoigu : & nbsp; The very idea & nbsp; itself was born in the & nbsp; late 80s due to a huge number of accidents and & nbsp; disasters. By & nbsp; by that time, such serious events as Chernobyl, an earthquake in & nbsp; Armenia had already occurred in the Soviet Union. And & nbsp; the earthquake in & nbsp; Armenia showed that all the emergency services that existed at that time often operate separately, without a single management. And & nbsp; then & nbsp; in & nbsp; the end of 1990 & nbsp; & nbsp; in & nbsp; USSR, it was decided to create a kind of Commission, coordinating the actions of all services involved in the elimination of emergencies. These are firefighters, civil defense, mine rescuers and & nbsp; many, many others.

And & nbsp; 27 & nbsp; December 1990 & nbsp; g. a decision was made by the Supreme Council, which instructed the government to create a Rescue Corps. Then it was not & nbsp; it was assumed that it would be a single service covering all types of emergencies. No one has ever & nbsp; understood what it would be. Not & nbsp; was studied by the world experience. Although world practice shows that firefighting services, for example, in the & nbsp; total working time takes only 10%. Everything else & nbsp; & mdash; a wide variety of emergencies from & nbsp; utility accidents to & nbsp; work in & nbsp; road accidents.

At first, earthquakes flew at their own expense. Own aviation, disaster medicine, paramedics, mobile hospitals – all this appeared much later. & mdash; Sergei Shoigu

& mdash; & nbsp; And & nbsp; how did you & nbsp; get into & nbsp; & quot; Rescue Corps & quot ;?

& mdash; & nbsp; I & nbsp; at & nbsp; at that moment I worked as deputy chairman of the State Committee of the RSFSR for & nbsp; architecture and & nbsp; construction. I was frankly not interested in this position, so I had to write a statement to the then Prime Minister Ivan Stepanovich Silaev … To ask him to let me go back to & nbsp; Siberia, to engage in construction. It was March 1991 & nbsp; year. Ivan Stepanovich called me and & nbsp; says: “ You know, there is such an idea, to create a 'Rescue Corps'. How do you & nbsp; about & nbsp; this? True, & nbsp; & mdash; added the head of government, & nbsp; & mdash; I myself do not yet & nbsp; know what it is. But & nbsp; I think you will be interested. '' I didn't know anything about this activity either. So & nbsp; decided to give it a try.

We started with & nbsp; studying the world experience. In & nbsp; June 1991 & nbsp; g. together with & nbsp; representatives from & nbsp; all Union republics flew to the & nbsp; USA, to the & nbsp; Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Someone from & nbsp; colleagues took clothes home after this trip, and & nbsp; I & nbsp; & mdash; two huge bags with & nbsp; books about & nbsp; rescue techniques for & nbsp; all kinds of emergencies …

The first test of our strength was the work on the & nbsp; earthquake in & nbsp; Java, in & nbsp; South Ossetia, & nbsp; in & nbsp; 1991 & nbsp; g. We don't have anything yet, because it's only been two weeks since we were & nbsp; educated. And & nbsp; then in & nbsp; & quot; Rescue Corps & raquo; even my own accounting department was not & nbsp; So we flew there at our own expense. Own aviation, disaster medicine, paramedics, mobile hospitals & nbsp; & mdash; all this appeared much later.

Photo: Press service of the RF Ministry of Emergency Situations

Minute of silence

& mdash; & nbsp; True, the & nbsp; first rescuers had three main tools: a shovel, a pickaxe and & nbsp; hoe ?

& mdash; & nbsp; Not & nbsp; three, but & nbsp; two. Pickaxe & nbsp; & mdash; this is one tool. Service arms of a civil defense soldier & nbsp; & mdash; pickaxe and & nbsp; shovel. And & nbsp; to work after earthquakes, you need jacks, hydraulic shears, cutters, hydraulic tools and & nbsp; other. All this we didn’t have at the time. It was necessary to buy everything abroad. Or do it yourself. We chose the second path. Thank God, there is always a huge number of enthusiasts in our country, who in the shortest possible time began to produce all the necessary tools and equipment here. As a result of the & nbsp; earthquake in & nbsp; Neftegorsk, we & nbsp; were already quite well equipped.

& mdash; & nbsp; Neftegorsk & nbsp; & mdash; catastrophic earthquake on & nbsp; Sakhalin in & nbsp; 1995 & nbsp; g. What do you remember most about it?

& mdash; & nbsp; We got there quickly enough. We promptly created the entire force grouping for the rescue operation. The operation itself has become unique. With the colossal destruction of infrastructure, a very large number of people were saved & nbsp; & mdash; I & nbsp; do not know other similar earthquakes. From there, by the way, came and & nbsp; such a thing as a “ minute of silence ''. Although the “ minute '' & nbsp; & mdash; the name is conditional. We made intervals of & nbsp; 15 & nbsp; minutes, during which we completely stopped the work of technicians and & nbsp; rescuers, in order to hear the voices of people under the rubble. There we used dogs for the first time. The Cynological Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations was born exactly there, in & nbsp; Neftegorsk.

“ Sergei, what's going on? ''

& mdash; & nbsp; Your biography is closely intertwined with work lifeguard and & nbsp; peacekeeping. How did it happen? Still, stop armed conflicts & nbsp; & mdash; rather a military matter.

& mdash; & nbsp; Yes & nbsp; we & nbsp; were just convinced that all the conflicts that arose in & nbsp; Abkhazia, Transnistria, South Ossetia and & nbsp; Georgia, and & nbsp; later in & nbsp; Tajikistan & nbsp; & mdash; these are emergencies in which we are & nbsp; obligated to participate. South Ossetia, I remember, appeared completely unexpectedly. Upon learning that civilians were dying there, I & nbsp; prepared a note to the head of the Presidential Administration Sergei Filatov … In the morning he called me and & nbsp; said: “ Go urgently to the & nbsp; Security Council. '' And & nbsp; for & nbsp; lunch, we & nbsp; have already left for & nbsp; the conflict zone in & nbsp; South Ossetia and & nbsp; right there we prepared a proposal on & nbsp; the decision of the Security Council on the need to create a peacekeeping force. And & nbsp; to carry out all this the Security Council instructed us, and & nbsp; me personally. In & nbsp; South Ossetia, & nbsp; I had three deputies: Deputy Minister of Defense, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs and & nbsp; Deputy Ministry of Security …

Photo: Press Service of the RF Ministry of Emergency Situations

After that, there was Abkhazia, simultaneously with & nbsp; Transnistria appeared, because the two of them walked in parallel, and & nbsp; my deputy flew there. Remember that & nbsp; time: we all have the hope that the Soviet Union will recover, that we will live as before, in & nbsp; friendship and & nbsp; peace. I remember forever when I was met by Hero of the Soviet Union Militon Varlamovich Kantaria along the & nbsp; road from & nbsp; Sukhumi to & nbsp; border with & nbsp; Georgia… He stopped and & nbsp; asks: “ Sergei, what's going on? Did I & nbsp; for this purpose defend the country and & nbsp; hoisted a banner over the Reichstag? ''

And & nbsp; like this, similar peacekeeping tasks later had to be performed & nbsp; outside the & nbsp; borders of the former USSR. We had Bosnia and & nbsp; Herzegovina, and & nbsp; an operation in & nbsp; Timor, there was Yemen, Congo, there was a rescue of the Dukhobors and & nbsp; Tolstoyans from & nbsp; Georgia and & nbsp; their & nbsp; evacuation here, the rescue of our Adygs from Sap & nbsp; There were many operations. In & nbsp; in total & nbsp; only abroad & nbsp; for & nbsp; my time & nbsp; at & nbsp; almost 460 different operations were carried out.

& mdash; & nbsp; And & nbsp; when, against the background of these peacekeeping operations, understanding came that a big country is disintegrating so that you can't glue it together? As with & nbsp; Ukraine: all the pots there are now broken …

& mdash; & nbsp; This understanding came in & nbsp; 1993, after the well-known events in & nbsp; Moscow. And & nbsp; about Ukraine today … In & nbsp; Ukraine, not & nbsp; we & nbsp; helped them, starting from & nbsp; 2000s, consistently beat their pots themselves, destroying the country. And & nbsp; thank God that under the leadership of our President & nbsp; in & nbsp; 2014 we managed to keep peace in & nbsp; Crimea. Because if & nbsp; all this public & nbsp; & mdash; Ukrainian neo-fascists, ultranationalists, extremists and & nbsp; mercenaries from & nbsp; European countries and & nbsp; USA & mdash; arrived then after committing a coup in & nbsp; Kiev, as they were going to, in & nbsp; Crimea, & nbsp; & mdash; I assure you, no one & nbsp; would seem a little & nbsp;. There would & nbsp; would be such a hearth that would not be extinguished by the whole world. We & nbsp; to & nbsp; still see the consequences of the attempts of these non-humans, together with & nbsp; Ukrainian troops, to establish their own order in the & nbsp; Donetsk and & nbsp; Luhansk regions.

Sergei Shoigu and Vladimir Putin. Photo: Press Service of the RF Ministry of Emergency Situations

Save the whole world

& mdash; & nbsp; In & nbsp; this year, and & nbsp; not & nbsp; for the first time, the military helped civilian firefighters to extinguish both Yakutia and & nbsp; other regions. Why is the military helping civilian rescuers?

& mdash; & nbsp; Our army helps the country. On the instructions of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, servicemen help our people who are in trouble. This is how & nbsp; should always be. For example, in & nbsp; 2010 & nbsp; when the peat bogs caught fire, it burned even more than now. Our country then flew to & nbsp; airplanes, helicopters, teams, detachments from & nbsp; 19 & nbsp; countries of the world.

After the liquidation of these fires, we wrote a report to the President, where & nbsp; I & nbsp; as Minister of Emergency Situations proposed that all state aviation should have means of extinguishing fires. Helicopters Mi-26, Ka-27, Mi-8, Il-76 aircraft must have pouring devices & nbsp; & mdash; all without exception. And & nbsp; in the & nbsp; Ministry of Defense in & nbsp; including. The President supported us, and & nbsp; funds were allocated for & nbsp;

Today, the & nbsp; Ministry of Defense has the largest number of “ transport workers '' IL-76 from & nbsp; all state aviation. We have the largest number of Mi-8 and Mi-26 helicopters. And & nbsp; all of them, in & nbsp; if necessary, are capable of extinguishing fires. Because the & nbsp; country must have sufficient resources that it may need in & nbsp; emergencies. I will add that in addition to aviation, our Armed Forces also have powerful engineering equipment. For example, a fencing machine & nbsp; & mdash; a tank without a tower, with & nbsp; a huge bulldozer knife. Recently, there were heavy snowfalls in the & nbsp; Jewish Autonomous Region, and & nbsp; these machines quickly came to & nbsp; help for clearing roads.

Photo: Press Service of the RF Ministry of Emergency Situations

& mdash; & nbsp; And & nbsp; on an & nbsp; international scale, does the same principle work?

& mdash; & nbsp; Unfortunately, we only have to dream about & nbsp; We & nbsp; for a long time on the line of the Ministry of Emergency Situations proposed to create coordination rescue centers in & nbsp; various regions of the world. Let's say for joint extinguishing of forest fires. Because no country & nbsp; is & nbsp; able to keep in reserve as many aircraft and & nbsp; people as you might suddenly need if there is a strong blaze.

In fact, we & nbsp; then, in the & nbsp; Ministry of Emergency Situations, & nbsp; already in & nbsp; practice came to & nbsp; this. In winter, our aviation & nbsp; & mdash; & nbsp; we had a big contract & nbsp; & mdash; worked in & nbsp; Australia. Because when & nbsp; we have winter, & nbsp; they have summer and & nbsp; fires.

And & nbsp; this approach could be implemented everywhere, if & nbsp; were not & nbsp; there were all sorts of barriers in the & nbsp; form of sanctions, bureaucracy. If & nbsp; and & nbsp; everyone had a desire to live in & nbsp; harmony and & nbsp; to help each other.

There were, after all, successful projects, for example, in the & nbsp; field of humanitarian demining. You can also recall & nbsp; the creation by the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations of a joint humanitarian center in & nbsp; the Serbian city of Nis, which is operating up to & nbsp; today. By the way, the United States has been forcing Belgrade to close it for many years. The Ministry of Emergency Situations dealt with all this. And & nbsp; was very active. We & nbsp; won competitions in & nbsp; Bosnia and & nbsp; Herzegovina. We & nbsp; demined Afghanistan, the Salang pass, where the tunnel was being restored, when there was still the Northern Alliance. We did this in the & nbsp; Ministry of Emergency Situations.

A “team of creators” is working with me. These are people who want to build or do something as efficiently as possible, quickly, and, most importantly, for the good of our country. And if you just pull the strap, this is not creation. & mdash; Sergey Shoigu

Team of creators

& mdash; & nbsp; What character traits should a person have to be on your team?

& mdash; & nbsp; Once I called those who & nbsp; me a team of creators. These are people who want to build or do something as efficiently as possible, quickly, and most importantly, for the benefit of our country. Because if you & nbsp; just pull the strap, it is not & nbsp; creation. There are, of course, such professions where this is normal: come at & nbsp; 9.00, left at & nbsp; 18.00, and let the owner pay twice for processing. I don't & nbsp; want to offend, but & nbsp; the concept of “ creation '' & nbsp; is not suitable for & nbsp;.

Rescue and protect. The life of Sergei Shoigu in photographs

Sergei Shoigu was born in the small town of Chadan, Tuva Autonomous District. At 22, he graduated from the Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute, after which he worked in various trusts until 1988. © RIA Novosti

In the late 80s, Shoigu took the post of second secretary of the Abakan State Center of the CPSU, and just a couple of years later he took the post of deputy chairman of the State Committee for Architecture and Construction. © RIA Novosti

In 1991, Sergei Shoigu became the chairman of the Russian Rescue Corps and the chairman of the State Committee for Emergency Situations – from that moment the stage of his career related to the Ministry of Emergencies began. © RIA Novosti

In 1993, Shoigu was promoted to major general without observing the order of assignment of military ranks – before, Sergei Kuzhugetovich had the rank of senior lieutenant in the reserve. © RIA Novosti

A year later, Sergei Shoigu was appointed Minister of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters – EMERCOM of Russia. After some time, Shoigu also became a member of the Russian Security Council. © RIA Novosti

Within the framework of one of the projects in 2007, under the patronage of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, an archaeological expedition was launched, the purpose of which was to restore the medieval monument of Por-Bazhin in Tuva. It is believed that this project became possible largely thanks to the personal initiative of Sergei Shoigu. In the photo: Sergei Shoigu with his wife. © RIA Novosti

Among other things, Sergei Shoigu is the president of the International Sports Federation of Firefighters and Rescuers. © Press Service of the Olympic Torch Relay

Shoigu left the post of the head of the Ministry of Emergency Situations in 2012, then he set a record for the duration of a ministerial post in the post-Soviet period. © Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

In April 2012, Shoigu's candidacy was unanimously supported by the Moscow Regional Duma for the post of Governor of the Moscow Region, but after a few months Sergei Kuzhugetovich left this post for the post of Defense Minister, in which he replaced Anatoly Serdyukov. © RIA Novosti

Shoigu has many orders and awards of the Russian Federation, including “For Services to the Fatherland” II and III degrees, the title of Hero of Russia, and many others. Sergei and Irina Shoigu have two daughters – Julia (born 1977) and Ksenia (born 1991). © RIA Novosti

To rescue and protect. The life of Sergei Shoigu in photographs

Sergei Shoigu was born in the small town of Chadan, Tuva Autonomous District. At 22, he graduated from the Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute, after which he worked in various trusts until 1988. © RIA Novosti

​​

In the late 80s, Shoigu took the post of second secretary of the Abakan State Center of the CPSU, and just a couple of years later he took the post of deputy chairman of the State Committee for Architecture and Construction. © RIA Novosti

​​

In 1991, Sergei Shoigu became the chairman of the Russian Rescue Corps and the chairman of the State Committee for Emergency Situations – from that moment the stage of his career related to the Ministry of Emergencies began. © RIA Novosti

​​

In 1993, Shoigu was promoted to major general without observing the order of assignment of military ranks – before, Sergei Kuzhugetovich had the rank of senior lieutenant in the reserve. © RIA Novosti

​​

A year later, Sergei Shoigu was appointed Minister of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters – EMERCOM of Russia. After some time, Shoigu also became a member of the Russian Security Council. © RIA Novosti

Within the framework of one of the projects in 2007, under the patronage of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, an archaeological expedition was launched, the purpose of which was to restore the medieval monument of Por-Bazhin in Tuva. It is believed that this project became possible largely thanks to the personal initiative of Sergei Shoigu. In the photo: Sergei Shoigu with his wife. © RIA Novosti

Among other things, Sergei Shoigu is the president of the International Sports Federation of Firefighters and Rescuers. © Press Service of the Olympic Torch Relay

Shoigu left the post of the head of the Ministry of Emergency Situations in 2012, then he set a record for the duration of a ministerial post in the post-Soviet period. © Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

In April 2012, Shoigu's candidacy was unanimously supported by the Moscow Regional Duma for the post of Governor of the Moscow Region, but after a few months Sergei Kuzhugetovich left this post for the post of Defense Minister, in which he replaced Anatoly Serdyukov. © RIA Novosti

Shoigu has many orders and awards of the Russian Federation, including “For Services to the Fatherland” II and III degrees, the title of Hero of Russia, and many others. Sergei and Irina Shoigu have two daughters – Julia (born 1977) and Ksenia (born 1991). © RIA Novosti

I remember how at the & nbsp; stage of the formation of the rescue service we were not paid a salary for almost half a year. The guys who then worked with & nbsp; just wrote statements and & nbsp; voluntarily went on & nbsp; vacation at & nbsp; their own expense. Formally being on & nbsp; vacation, they used their own money to buy tickets and & nbsp; went to the & nbsp; Emergency.

Or, for example, mine rescuers. One of the & nbsp; most dangerous and & nbsp; even heroic specialties. There are people who are incredibly dedicated to the job. They have mining experience and additional special training. We are ready to go down to the & nbsp; most dangerous places at & nbsp; great depths underground to save our comrades. All & nbsp; they, of course, receive a decent salary, but & nbsp; after all, they are not risking their lives & nbsp; because of this.

When you & nbsp; do not & nbsp; have any risk and & nbsp; receive your co-payments for & nbsp; what you were asked prepare an annual report & nbsp; & mdash; that's one thing.

The team never falls from the sky. It is made up of dedicated colleagues. & mdash; Sergey Shoigu

And & nbsp; another, when you & nbsp; nor & nbsp; about what you & nbsp; ask & nbsp; and & nbsp; go, another example, in & nbsp; mountains, as in mountain search and rescue teams, to look for climbers who got into & nbsp; trouble. Rescuers who work in the & nbsp; mountains … Well, & nbsp; for & nbsp; how much money can you collect such a team? 360 masters of sports worked for us in the & nbsp; Caucasus, in the mountains, in the & nbsp; rescue teams! Can you imagine what level of professionalism, courage and & nbsp; dedication they should have to their business?

The level of their & nbsp; training should always be higher than that of & nbsp; those who prepare, train for a year, and & nbsp; then go to the & nbsp; ascent. And & nbsp; after all, this is the everyday state of rescuers. They must be ready at any time. Therefore, you & nbsp; know, the team never falls out of the & nbsp; sky. It is created from & nbsp; dedicated colleagues.

Photo: Press Service of the RF Ministry of Emergency Situations

& mdash; & nbsp; A & nbsp; does the & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; have a universal wish, like & nbsp; sailors: “ seven feet under the keel '', which could & nbsp; to & nbsp; the holiday on the 27th to address colleagues?

& mdash; & nbsp; In general, our rescuers have a lot of holidays in & nbsp; year. & Nbsp; they have two Civil Defense Days & nbsp; & mdash; one of ours and & nbsp; one international. There is the Day of Fire Protection, there is the Day of Mine Rescuers. There is the Day of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, which is celebrated by everyone, and & nbsp; i & nbsp; in & nbsp; including. Although for almost 10 & nbsp; years I & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; have not been working in & nbsp; these structures, but & nbsp; anyway, this does & nbsp; cover those & nbsp; 20 & nbsp; years, which I devoted to this wonderful business. & Nbsp; me and & nbsp; today there are a lot of friends, colleagues, with whom we & nbsp; did a lot of useful and & nbsp; important things for our country. And & nbsp; I & nbsp; would like & nbsp; all of them & nbsp; they will understand me well, so that the rescue service is always ready for & nbsp; everything, but & nbsp; is not & nbsp; needed!

The brightest statements of Sergei Shoigu

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The brightest statements of Sergei Shoigu

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Источник aif.ru

Shoigu told how the army helps to cope with cataclysms and fires

Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, who headed the Emergencies Ministry in 1994 – 2012, told in an interview with AiF.ru how the military helps civilian and emergency services to cope with disasters and cataclysms. This year, the army helped to defeat forest fires in Yakutia, providing people and special equipment. & Nbsp;

“ Our army is helping the country. This is how it should always be. For example, in 2010, after a fire in peat bogs, we wrote a report to the President, where I, as Minister of Emergency Situations, suggested that all state aviation should have means of extinguishing fires. Helicopters Mi-26, Ka-27, Mi-8, Il-76 aircraft must have pouring devices & ndash; all without exception. And in the Ministry of Defense as well. The President supported us and funds were allocated for this, '' the minister shared. & Nbsp;

According to him, now the Ministry of Defense has the largest number of “ transport workers '' at its disposal. Il-76 from all state aviation. & Nbsp;

“ We have the largest number of Mi-8 and Mi-26 helicopters. And all of them, if necessary, are capable of extinguishing fires. Because the country must have sufficient resources that may be needed in emergency situations, '' added Shoigu.

He also said that powerful engineering equipment is used to eliminate some emergencies. For example, a barrage machine & ndash; a tank without a tower, with a huge bulldozer knife. Recently, there were heavy snowfalls in the Jewish Autonomous Region, and it was these vehicles that quickly came to the rescue to clear the roads.

We add that the emergency regime has been in effect in Yakutia since June 23. The head of the republic & nbsp; Aisen Nikolaev & nbsp; stated that & nbsp; the area of ​​all fires registered since the beginning of the season exceeded the record figure for the last ten & nbsp; years, reaching almost 8.5 million hectares. & Nbsp; The amount of damage to the forest fund from wildfires in the Republic of Sakha this year exceeded 3.7 billion rubles. & Nbsp;

Источник aif.ru

Shoigu named the human qualities necessary for working in the army

Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu in an interview with & nbsp; AiF.ru told what character traits a person from his team should have.
& nbsp;
The head of the defense department called his colleagues “ ; a team of creators '', noting that these are people who want to build or do something as efficiently as possible, quickly, and, most importantly, for the good of our country.

According to the minister, the members of his team should be dedicated to their work, as well as possessing courage and a high level of professionalism.
& nbsp;
Shoigu cited as an example mine rescuers who are ready to go down to the most dangerous places at great depths underground, as well as specialists from mountain search and rescue teams, working in the Caucasus.
& nbsp;
'The team never falls from the sky. It is built from dedicated colleagues '', & ndash; summed up the general of the Russian army.

Источник aif.ru

Japanese Ambassador spoke about interest in cooperation with Russia on hydrogen

Cooperation between Japan and Russia can spur projects in the field of climate, agriculture and hydrogen energy, Ambassador Toyohisa Kozuki told RBC. Political cooperation will also develop, he is sure

Toyohisa Kozuki

​​Climate, hydrogen and agriculture

“ Measures to combat climate change are one of the new areas in which cooperation between Japan and Russia is expected in the future, '' & mdash; the Ambassador of Japan to Russia Toyohisa Kozuki told RBK. “ It is the production and transportation of hydrogen and ammonia that has great potential for Japanese-Russian cooperation, '' & mdash; he specified. According to the ambassador, in the Basic Energy Plan, Japan has set a task to supply up to 3 million tons of hydrogen in 2030 and consume 3 million tons of fuel ammonia per year. “ Based on this, the projects for the production and export of hydrogen and ammonia, considered in Russia, can be mutually beneficial for both countries, given such an advantage as the geographical proximity of Japan and Russia, '' & mdash; the ambassador believes. In Japan, he said, there are many companies that have carbon processing technologies that allow storing carbon dioxide in the ground, which is formed during the production of hydrogen and ammonia, and Russia is rich in natural resources for such production. Cooperation in this area has already begun: Japan and Russia have signed memorandums of cooperation in this area, and feasibility studies are already being developed for some projects.

Among the projects that have already begun to be developed, the ambassador named a project to create a concept for a hydrogen supply chain between Japan and Russia, since 2019 it has been led by the Japan Natural Resources and Energy Agency and Rosatom State Corporation. First, a cooperation agreement was concluded between them, then the development of a feasibility study began. A project for the production of methanol in the Amur Region was also initiated, in 2020 the Japanese Marubeni and the Russian group of companies ESN signed a binding contract for the supply of methanol produced from natural gas.

There is also potential for cooperation in the field of renewable energy, the ambassador said. A project has already been launched to test the implementation of an energy management system in the Arctic village of Tiksi (Sakha Republic) with an emphasis on the use of wind power in remote areas with extremely cold climates. The costs of this project were covered by the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

Another promising area of ​​Toyohisa Kozuki is cooperation in agriculture and animal husbandry. For Russia, he said, the importance of cooperation with geographically close countries is growing. “ Japan has a developed livestock industry, including the production of wagyu beef. But the level of self-sufficiency in feed is low, only 25%, so that our country depends on imports from abroad. The Far East is geographically close to Japan and is a very promising import destination ',' mdash; the ambassador explained. According to him, Mitsui in partnership with Rusagro increased the export of fodder corn from the Far East to Japan and now exports about 100 thousand tons per year.

Peace treaty, cooperation on the northern islands

Political relations between Japan and Russia will also develop, Ambassador Kozuki assured. The course of the Japanese government on the development of the entire complex of relations in a wide range of areas remains unchanged under the new administration of Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, he said. The diplomat recalled that on October 7, shortly after taking office, Prime Minister Kishida had a telephone conversation with President Vladimir Putin. “ During the telephone conversations at the highest level on October 7, Prime Minister Kishida said that he intends to develop on a mutually beneficial basis the entire range of Japanese-Russian relations, including the issue of concluding a peace treaty. Regarding the problem of the northern territories, he also expressed his intention not to leave it to future generations and to thoroughly work it out together with President Putin, '' & mdash; the ambassador said.

Officials of the two countries continue to maintain a regular dialogue. Foreign Minister Hayashi, who took office on November 10, held a telephone conversation with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov on the 25th, the ambassador recalled. “ During these telephone conversations, the leaders of the two countries and both foreign ministers confirmed their intention to hold face-to-face meetings in the near future. The schedule for these meetings has not yet been determined & mdash; further political dialogue will be coordinated by the two countries, including taking into account the situation with the new coronavirus infection, '', & mdash; Ambassador Kozuki told RBC.

Due to the threat of the spread of a new strain of coronavirus 'omicron' Japan closed its borders to foreigners for a month on November 30. In total, 1.73 million cases of COVID-19 infection have been recorded in Japan since the beginning of the pandemic, 18.3 thousand people have died (according to Johns Hopkins University).

The special relationship between Japan and Russia, according to the ambassador, underlines the fact that Russia “ was one of the few states that Prime Minister Kishida mentioned in the context of the development of relations with individual countries, speaking in parliament immediately after taking office. '' “ It goes without saying that relations with Russia, our permanent important neighbor, are one of Japan's priorities. Since the beginning of the work of the new Kishida administration, exchanges of views on the mutually beneficial development of the entire complex of Japanese-Russian relations are already being held at various levels. We intend to continue this in the future, & raquo;, & mdash; said the ambassador.

“ With regard to joint economic activities on the four northern islands, this issue is consistently discussed at the working level. In particular, this year we held four expert consultations on waste management in the format of a video conference, as well as an expert consultation on tourism and a meeting of a working group at the level of the heads of the department on the legal aspects of joint economic activities. We will continue negotiations with the Russian side on the implementation of specific individual projects & raquo;, & mdash; said the diplomat.

The idea of ​​joint activities in the Kuril Islands, over which Japan disputes sovereignty, was proposed by the Russian side in 2016, under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, when cooperation between the two countries was actively developing. Abe set one of his main foreign policy goals to conclude a peace treaty with Russia and resolve the island problem.

Growth of trade in a pandemic

“ Even in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, trade between Japan and Russia in January – October 2021 grew by 21.1% over the same period last year, which we assess as an upward trend in trade. This indicates that the Japanese side attaches great importance to economic cooperation between Japan and Russia, regardless of the transfer of power to the new Prime Minister Fumio Kishida '' & mdash; the ambassador said.

According to the Russian side, in the first nine months of 2021, trade between Russia and Japan amounted to $ 14.127 billion, an increase of 18.18% compared to the same period in 2020.

By According to the Japanese Embassy, ​​in value terms, there was an increase in exports from Russia to Japan of fish and shellfish, liquefied natural gas, coal and non-ferrous metals. Exports of engines, construction and mining equipment, cars and auto parts from Japan to Russia increased in value terms.

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The Kremlin began preparations for the presidential elections in 2024

The nomination of Vladimir Putin for a new term is considered as a basic scenario. Preparations for the 2024 campaign have begun in the Kremlin. The scenario for the nomination of Vladimir Putin is currently being discussed as a baseline. The President said that he had not yet decided whether he would run for office, but such a right “already stabilizes the situation”

Vladimir Putin

Basic scenario

The Kremlin has begun preparations for the 2024 presidential election. Preliminary discussions on this topic began in the summer, two acquaintances told the source of RBC about the course of the discussion. In particular, it was said that the campaign should be planned not a year in advance, but in advance, says one of the interlocutors of RBC.

At the meetings, where the issue of the presidential election was touched upon in one way or another, they discussed the possible campaign of the incumbent President Vladimir Putin, both sources told RBC. A campaign is being discussed with a specific candidate. There are no other options [at the moment] ', & mdash; one of them emphasized.

At the same time, during the discussions in the Kremlin, it was never said that Vladimir Putin had already decided to go for a new term, both sources said. Accordingly, at the moment it is not clear whether the campaign is being prepared by default, that is, in the absence of other instructions, or the leadership of the presidential administration has an understanding in this regard, added one of the sources of RBC.

Vladimir Putin himself has publicly said that he has not yet made a decision, will run for a new term in 2024. The last time he announced this was during the VTB Capital forum. “ Russia is calling! ''.

“ In accordance with the Constitution, I have the right to be elected for a new term. Whether I did it or not, I have not yet decided for myself. But the very existence of this right already stabilizes the internal political situation, '', & mdash; said the head of state then.

An all-Russian vote on amendments to the Constitution took place in the summer of 2020. The key one was the one proposed by State Duma deputy Valentina Tereshkova, allowing Vladimir Putin to be nominated for a new term.

The possibility of nominating Vladimir Putin for a new term is now really considered as a basic scenario, another source familiar with the discussion of the issue confirmed. According to him, after the elections to the State Duma, which were held in September, the Kremlin set the task to analyze the course of the parliamentary campaign, to understand what mistakes were made and what, on the contrary, succeeded – and mdash; in order to use best practices during the presidential elections and avoid repeating any wrong steps.

Strategy Development Workshop

A possible strategy for the presidential campaign was discussed in the Senezh Management Workshop. in the suburbs from December 16 to 18. There, a seminar was held with the participation of the leadership of the Kremlin's internal political bloc, some of the employees of the three Kremlin departments (on domestic policy, on public projects and on ensuring the activities of the State Council), as well as representatives of United Russia. The party in power was represented by the Secretary of the General Council of the United Russia Andrei Turchak and his deputies. Four sources familiar with the content of the event told RBC about the seminar.

The main topic of the seminar was a possible strategy for the elections in 2024, all interlocutors of RBC said. The name of the potential candidate was not announced at the event, three sources say. However, the participants were told that it was necessary to develop a strategy “ for the presidential elections, '' two sources familiar with the seminar told RBC. In the context of discussing a possible strategy, it was about the continuity of the course, added another interlocutor of RBC.

Ensuring legitimacy was identified as the main task of the presidential elections. In general, the seminar was a brainstorming session, during which it was discussed what the government's strategy should be in various areas in order to be as prepared as possible by 2024, RBC's interlocutors specified.

“ For the presidential administration, the participation of Vladimir Putin in the 2024 elections should be and is the basic scenario. Everything else was strange, '' & mdash; says political scientist Dmitry Badovsky. If the name of the Russian leader really sounds in the context of preparations for the presidential campaign, then this is absolutely logical, he believes, adding that his personal opinion is also that “ the problem of transfer or transit of power in 2024 does not exist: Putin will go to the polls and will be re-elected president. '' This is the starting point for the preparation of the campaign, its strategic planning. ''

Also, according to Badovsky, it is necessary to take into account that “ political time now flows not only very quickly, but also torn & mdash; because of the same pandemic, for example, the prospect of new waves. '' The logic of the political movement is changing, and some things need to be done as soon as possible, using the available time slots in a relatively calm situation, in order to, among other things, be able to take advantage of the existing developments in the event of force majeure, the expert says.

The current president has the opportunity to run for a new term, but the name of the candidate from the government does not matter at this stage, political consultant Yaroslav Ignatovsky believes.

Now, he believes, for the presidential administration, firstly, it is important to analyze the elections to the State Duma. “ Secondly, it only seems that 2024 is still a long way off. In fact, this is not the case. The foreign policy factor is also at work. Thirdly, you need to look at what the regions breathe & mdash; they need to be constantly reminded of the campaign strategy, the legitimacy '', & mdash; says the expert. The two years remaining before the elections will be used to thoroughly prepare certain ideologemes and principles & mdash; for this, the internal political bloc of the Kremlin will work with vice governors, United Russia, political strategists, and the expert community, Ignatovsky lists. The main task & mdash; so that a few months before the elections it turns out that the authorities can get an unpredictable result, he concludes.

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Shoigu told what would happen in Crimea without Russia

Shoigu said that without Russia, Ukrainian neo-fascists would have arrived in Crimea

Sergei Shoigu

If Crimea had not become part of Russia in 2014, Ukrainian neo-fascists, ultranationalists, extremists and mercenaries from Europe and the United States would come there. This was stated by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu in an interview with Arguments and Facts.

“ If only this audience '' Ukrainian neo-fascists, ultranationalists, extremists and mercenaries from European countries and the USA & mdash; then after the coup d'etat in Kiev, as they were going to the Crimea, & mdash; I assure you, Nicomuba did not seem a little '', & mdash; said Shoigu.

In his opinion, there was “ such a hearth on the peninsula that the whole world would not extinguish it. '' “ We still see the consequences of the attempts of these non-humans, together with the Ukrainian troops, to establish their own order in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, '' & mdash; added the head of the Ministry of Defense.

Crimea became part of Russia in 2014 following a referendum in which the majority of the peninsula's residents voted to join. The authorities of Ukraine and Western countries did not recognize the voting results. Moscow, in turn, considers the issue of ownership of the peninsula closed.

In August this year, the Crimean Platform summit was held in Kiev, at which the issue of returning Crimea to Ukraine was discussed. The summit participants adopted a joint final declaration, where they declared their intention to maintain pressure on Moscow, including through restrictive actions. In addition, the document refers to the agreement to continue the policy of “ non-recognition of illegal annexation '' Crimea.

On December 27, the Permanent Representative of Crimea to the President of Russia Georgy Muradov said that the escalation of tension in the south-east of Ukraine is associated with the holding of this summit. “ The platform has become a legal justification for the aggressive actions of the West in the region, '' & mdash; he said. In his opinion, Western countries intend to “ arrange provocations at the borders '' to find reasons to impose sanctions.

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Decay period: last December of the Union. December 26, 1991

On December 26, 1991, the USSR ceased to exist, the decision was officially formalized by a decree of the union parliament. RBC ends the cycle of publications about December 1991 with a chronicle of the last day of the Soviet Union

Dismantling of the signboard “Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR” after the last meeting of the Council of Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which adopted a declaration on the termination of the existence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Last declaration

By December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union, in fact, already existed only on paper. State President Mikhail Gorbachev resigned from the job and handed over control of the “ nuclear button '' Russian leader Boris Yeltsin. The new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) included 11 of the 15 former Soviet republics at once, with the exception of Georgia and the Baltic states. The USSR de facto ceased to exist, this decision had to be formalized legally.

The material was first published in 2016. Read the entire chronicle of the last December of the Union in the report of RBC “ 30 years without the USSR ''

The last decision in the history of the Soviet parliament had to be adopted in a limited composition: from two of its chambers, the quorum was preserved only in the upper & mdash; Council of Republics chaired by Anuarbek Alimzhanov.

The last meeting of the Council of Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which adopted a declaration on the termination of the existence of the USSR (Photo: Valentin Kuzmin/Photo chronicle TASS)

Dear People's Deputies! As you noticed, today the flag of the Soviet Union has been lowered over the Kremlin. And last night, you all witnessed how the president & mdash; the first president of this great country & mdash; submitted a vote.

I don’t know how the first session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR went and what was the state of the people, but, It seems to me that great things were said then: world revolution, social equality, socialism, the dream of going to communism. There, probably, many good, kind, wonderful words were said about the future of this huge country.

However, it so happened that today I was a participant in the last meeting of the last session. Ito, it was dreamed about, what was said on the first session, frankly, did not come true. Apparently, it said that, building socialism, we are stepping over an entire historical epoch. Alas, it turned out that history is impossible to step over epochs. ” From the transcript of Anuarbek Alimzhanov's speech at the last session of the USSR Supreme Soviet.

At that time, only five delegations remained in the Council of Republics. Nevertheless, even representatives of those republics that stopped participating in the work of the union parliament, including Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, were present at the last meeting.

Chairman of the Council Anuarbek Alimzhanov during his speech at the meeting, which adopted a declaration on the termination of the existence of the USSR (Photo: Kuzmin Valentin/Photo chronicle TASS)

The presiding officer proposed to consider that there is a quorum, after which a vote was passed and declaration No. 142-N under the title “ In connection with the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States '' was adopted.

“ Based on the will expressed by the highest state bodies of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and Ukraine on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR states, that by the re-establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the USSR as a state and a subject of international law ceases to exist '' (preamble of the declaration).

Several mistakes were made in the text of the document – the agreement on the establishment of the CIS was not ratified in Russia, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.

Nevertheless, the legitimacy of the adopted document is already could not & mdash; the union parliament had to simply adopt this document in order to officially cease to exist.

It is interesting that this declaration was not the last in the history of the Supreme Soviet. A little later, the deputies made a decision to release from their positions as judges of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the USSR, as well as members of the collegium of the Union Prosecutor's Office. Their positions were abolished on January 2, 1992, and the employees were entitled to severance pay in the amount of three months' salary. This was the end of the history of the last operating body of power in the USSR.

An article in the Izvestia newspaper; dated December 26, 1991

Gorbachev's meeting with journalists

As a retired politician Mikhail Gorbachev met with journalists. The meeting took place at the Oktyabrskaya Hotel and lasted two hours. The ex-president of the USSR said on topics that for the entire last month: the responsibility of politicians, the need to continue reforms and that the Union should have been preserved.

“ I was opposed, now against, to go as scissors on the map of our country, the poet of a huge community. To redistribute powers, power, rights – yes, but not to diverge. And from the point of view of specific tasks, tactical tasks in the field of economics, social policy, finance, he believed that the union state with effective mechanisms is more necessary and justified than something incomprehensible. But the duty of every patriot is to help what has become a real process. Let these be steps towards agreement. It is necessary to choose, thinking on the people, the life of the “ real, today's ''. Mikhail Gorbachev at a meeting with journalists on December 26, 1991.

Most of the world's politicians followed Gorbachev with warm words, saying that he managed to change the course of history, and his achievements as the head of the Soviet Union were revolutionary.

  • “I salute him as the most outstanding person in the history of this century, who achieved the emergence of democracy in his country, the end of the Cold War and disarmament.” François Mitterrand, President of France.
  • “ This is a great man. He returned freedom to the countries of Eastern Europe. He presented it to the peoples of the Soviet Union for the first time. Real personal and political freedom. This is a huge accomplishment. And he did it without firing a single shot. '' Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of Great Britain.
  • “ For almost seven years that he was the head of state, Gorbachev carried out revolutionary changes at home and renewed the foreign policy of the USSR. He led the country out of seventy years of paralysis and oppression. The German people will never forget Mikhail Gorbachev's contribution to the unification of Germany. '' Helmut Kohl, German Chancellor.
  • “Very few people have been given the power to change the course of history. But this is exactly what Gorbachev did. No matter what happens, he is guaranteed a place in history. Today the former Soviet Union is a country that is on the road to democracy. He left the presidency by making the world a safer place by reducing the nuclear threat. ” John Major, Prime Minister of Great Britain.
  • “ Without those changes in the Soviet Union, sponsored by Gorbachev, it would have been impossible to expect such a fundamental change in the policy of this state … NATO has been able to lend a hand of friendship to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe for these changes. '' Manfred Werner, NATO Secretary General.

Following the announcement of his resignation, Mikhail Gorbachev, the former President of the USSR, met with Soviet and foreign journalists (Photo: Yuri Lizunov/TASS Photo Chronicle)

Foreign Press

  • “ Gorbachev's resignation '' the date is inevitable. A lot of things will happen because of Gorbachev's shortcomings: his weak ability to understand people, his indecision and softness, which raised doubts about his adherence to principles. But in two moments he stood firmly on his own. He refused to use force to preserve the Soviet Union, and he saw the Soviet Union only as a single state. He eventually admitted that it was incompatible. '' (The Times)
  • “ Yesterday, despite two days of talks, the gap between Russia and Ukraine widened over nuclear weapons control and a joint military policy for the CIS countries. The degree of mistrust between Ukraine and its neighbor was demonstrated by the move by Russia of the largest and most aircraft-carrying cruiser in Ukrainian waters to a special pier in Murmansk. This was the first time that Russia attempted to establish control of over-Soviet military assets outside its borders, and it was a direct challenge to the Ukrainian decree providing for command of the armed forces and equipment over its territory. '' (The Times)

Other news of the day

  • The Parliament of Tajikistan has ratified the agreement on the establishment of the CIS.
  • The Supreme Council of Tatarstan adopted a declaration of accession to the CIS on the rights of one researcher.
  • Director of the allied Central Intelligence Service (CSR) Yevgeny Primakov headed the Russian intelligence service.
  • Vice-Mayor of Moscow Yuri Luzhkov, following a meeting with Yeltsin, stated that the grounds for the resignation of the head of the city, Gabriel Popov is no more, then the Russian leadership is ready to consider laws on the special status of Moscow.
  • The head of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia Vladimir Zhirinovsky on the air of the Belarusian television stated the need to liquidate Belarus and transform it into one of the Russian provinces. After that, an unauthorized rally took place in Minsk, during which supporters and opponents of the politician fought.

Chronicle of December 1991

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Historian Dmitriev’s sentence has been toughened up to 15 years in prison

The head of the Karelian “Memorial” historian Dmitriev was sentenced to 15 years in prison Instead of 13 years, the historian and human rights activist was sentenced to 15 years in prison. Dmitriev's case has been dragging on since 2016 because of the photos of his adopted daughter

Yuri Dmitriev

The Petrozavodsk City Court has revised the verdict in the case of lecherous acts and pornography against the historian Yuri Dmitriev, who heads the Karelian branch of Memorial (the organization is recognized as a foreign agent). The court sentenced him to 15 years in prison, TASS reports. Dmitriev was also found guilty of illegal possession of weapons.

“ To impose a sentence of 15 years in prison in a maximum security colony, '' & mdash; the judge ruled. Before the revision, the sentence for Dmitriev was 13 years.

The defendant himself claims that he took photographs of his minor ward for medical purposes, since after the orphanage the girl came to him weakened. Because of this, Dmitriev kept a diary of her health, where he attached photographs. In addition, the defense argued that he feared the deprivation of parental rights and the return of his daughter to the orphanage, after in 2008 the guardianship authorities took the marks left on the child's body after the mustard plasters for bruises from the beatings.

A criminal case against the historian was opened in 2016. Initially, he was charged under Art. 135 of the Criminal Code (lecherous actions), art. 242.2 of the Criminal Code (use of a minor for the production of pornography), part 1 of Art. 222 of the Criminal Code (illegal possession of weapons) and clause “ b '' h. 4 tbsp. 132 of the Criminal Code (violent acts of a sexual nature). During the first trial, Dmitriev was acquitted on most charges. The defendant was charged only with illegal possession of weapons because of the fragments of a hunting rifle found on him and given 3.5 years in prison.

But in 2018, the acquittal was canceled, and the case was sent for revision. According to the defendant's defense, the reason for this was a letter from Dmitriev's adopted daughter, in which she talks about her suffering. “ They forced her to tell a lie, unfortunately, the process is closed, I can't say anything else, '' & mdash; the lawyer Viktor Anufriev said then.

Dmitriev & mdash; Karelian historian. In the early 1990s, he discovered in his region several large graves of victims of Stalinist repressions, including the Sandarmokh shooting range, where, according to various estimates, from 6,000 to 9,000 people were killed and buried.

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The WHO called the conditions for the end of the pandemic and gave a forecast for “Sputnik V”

The head of the WHO European Office: “I hope the process of registration of Sputnik will be completed soon” The pandemic will end when 70% of the world's population is vaccinated and medicines are developed to treat those who fall ill, said the head of the WHO European Office. According to him, “Sputnik V” will soon receive registration of the organization

The process of registration of the Russian vaccine Sputnik V The World Health Organization (WHO) will soon be completed, said the head of the organization's Regional Office for Europe, Hans Kluge.

In an interview with TASS, he said that the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) in October signed all the legal agreements required to be included in the Emergency Use Listing (EUL) list, after which WHO held a meeting with the fund. discussed what data the organization lacks to complete the procedure.

The company has pledged to provide a detailed roadmap for data reporting so that WHO can expedite the evaluation of this vaccine. The submission is expected by the end of December 2021 and I hope that the process will be completed shortly thereafter. '', & Mdash; said Kluge.

RBC sent a request to RDIF.

According to him, the approval of the Russian vaccine & mdash; non-political process: it is now important to vaccinate as many people around the world as possible to stop the pandemic.

“ The pandemic will end when we can vaccinate 70% of the world's population. It will end when we can develop effective and safe antiviral drugs for treating people infected with COVID-19 '', & mdash; says the head of the WHO European Office.

It is also necessary to strengthen health systems, train future health workers in other pandemics and interact not as separate nation states, but “ as one family. '' “ It will end when everyone, without exception, is armed with science and takes responsibility for their actions, '' & mdash; Kluge stated.

Application for accelerated registration and retraining of Sputnik V RDIF filed with WHO at the end of October 2020.

In June, WHO published a report on the audit of four Russian enterprises that manufacture Sputnik V. The report said that the organization had comments on the work of the enterprise OJSC Pharmstandard & mdash; Ufa Vitamin Plant '', located in Bashkiria, which concerned compliance with the production standards of the drug.

On the same day, the press secretary of the Russian president, Dmitry Peskov, said that all the shortcomings identified by the WHO inspectors had been corrected. However, in September it became known that due to this, the approval process for Sputnik V was suspended, it was resumed in October. Before that, the head of the Ministry of Health Mikhail Murashko met with WHO Director General Tedros Ghebreyesus, they discussed, among other things, the procedure for approving the vaccine. According to the minister, during the meeting of this meeting, all issues related to the registration of Sputnik V were resolved.

After that, Kluge said that WHO could approve Sputnik V; in the first quarter of 2022. WHO also announced the timing of inspections at Russian factories for the production of the Sputnik V vaccine. According to Rogerio Gaspar, Director of the Department for Retraining and Circulation of Medicines at WHO, the organization may re-inspect factories as early as February next year.

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