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In Poland, they found the only way to “scare Putin”


There is only one way to” scare ” Russian President Vladimir Putin, who is accumulating military forces on the border & nbsp; with Ukraine. It may be a military reaction of Western countries to “aggressive provocations” Kremlin.

This was announced by the Polish expert on Eastern Europe, Russia and defense policy Gustav Gressel.

“Experts are convincing that the invasion may occur in early 2022. And this threat is very real. If Putin goes that far, that's another question. The problem is that he is not deterred by the resistance of the Ukrainians and their unwillingness to submit to the Russian authorities. The only thing that Putin may be afraid of is & ndash; this is the military reaction of the West & quot ;, & ndash; the specialist is quoted by the Pravda edition.

In his opinion, as soon as Moscow realizes that the West is weak, it will immediately attack Ukraine. Gessel stressed that the fear of escalation in Europe is so great that it itself becomes an invitation to escalation. But if the West does not intercede for Ukraine now, in the future it will have to fight for itself.

Gustav Gessel is sure that Moscow is not afraid of Kiev's resistance. Dmitry Peskov, the press secretary of the President of the Russian Federation, has repeatedly stated that the movements of the Russian army through its own territory do not concern anyone and do not threaten anyone. In his opinion, the aggravated discussion around Ukraine provokes tension in the region, which will benefit no one.

See also: & nbsp; German residents ridiculed the foreign minister who threatened Russia


Turkey announced “Putin’s strike on the Turkic world”


Turkey reacted very jealously to the signing by Russian President Vladimir Putin on December 21 of a law prohibiting the heads of regions to be called presidents. The only region where the head of the region was called president was Tatarstan. In Turkey, they believe that in this way Putin made an “outrageous” decision against the Turkic population and struck a blow at the Turkic world.

As stated in the Türkiye edition, Russia “step by step is steadily and confidently moving towards its goal of the path of becoming a superpower, from federation to tsarist times. ” The author is outraged that the world is just looking at this and that the organization of the Turkic states does not notice these events.

The elimination of the status of the President of Tatarstan, the newspaper believes, means that in fact the head of the republic becomes the federal governor.

“Tatarstan has lost its special and autonomous position!” – the publication says.

The Turkish author is outraged by the fact that in the senior grades and universities in Russia in various regions, including in the national republics, instruction is carried out in Russian.

“The goal is to bring to life the Russian Empire with assimilated peoples,” the author writes, adding that the measures are being introduced gradually, but in the long term the entire Turkic world will see their influence.

“December 21 is the day when we completely lost the Republic of Tatarstan! ” – reads at the end of the article.

Turkish nationalist radicals do not abandon their attempts to split the relations of the peoples of Russia. Meanwhile, in Tatarstan itself, as a result, the president's signing of the law on local government was taken calmly.


The court sentenced the historian Dmitriev to 15 years in prison


A court in Karelia has sentenced the historian and the head of the department of the Memorial Scientific Information Center; (recognized by the Ministry of Justice as a foreign agent) Yuri Dmitriev to 15 years in prison.

Dmitriev was found guilty of lecherous acts, the production of pornography and possession of weapons.

serving in a strict regime colony '', & ndash; said in court.

Recall that the criminal prosecution of Dmitriev began in 2016. According to him, the blame for everything was the dissatisfaction of the police officers with his investigation of the Stalinist repressions in the region. During a search, a folder with photographs of a naked adopted daughter, born in 2005, was found in his computer. Dmitriev stated that he photographed the child for his Health Diary to monitor her physical development.

Dmitriev was accused of making pornography: out of 200 photographs, 9 of them showed the child's crotch. In addition, a sawed-off shotgun was found in the apartment & nbsp; & ndash; a case was also initiated on illegal possession of weapons.

As a result, after investigating the case in April 2018, the Petrozavodsk court acquitted the historian on all counts, except for the storage of weapons. Dmitriev was sentenced to 3.5 years in prison. However, an appeal was filed against the court's decision, and the Supreme Court of Karelia increased the sentence to 13 years in prison under the article on sexual abuse of a minor. Today & nbsp; Petrozavodsk City Court & nbsp; in combination with a previously committed crime, sentenced to 15 years in prison.

& nbsp;


In Kiev, Kadyrov was threatened for “joining of Ukraine to Chechnya”

Photo: The website of the Chechen government.

Verkhovna Rada deputy Aleksey Goncharenko answered the head of Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov when he said about Ukraine's joining Chechnya. The Ukrainian deputy believes that such statements may be of interest to the International Court of Justice.

Recall that earlier Ramzan Kadyrov said at a press conference in Grozny that if President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and his team behave this way, then Ukraine ” ; must join our country. ” Kadyrov added that if he had been instructed, he would have “annexed Ukraine to the Chechen Republic, he would have taken it long ago, he would have solved the issue there.”

“Why are you bothering? You are not welcome here & quot ;, & ndash; wrote Aleksey Goncharenko in his telegram channel, addressing the head of Chechnya.

Petro Poroshenko's associate added that Ramzan Kadyrov “ will be happy to hear in The Hague. ''

“ Someone for one article, someone for & nbsp; two & quot ;, & ndash; also written by a Ukrainian MP.


Peskov confirmed the Russia-NATO meeting


Dmitry Peskov said that the Russia-NATO meeting“ is a very important track of negotiations ”. He recalled that two draft agreements and treaty, which were first committed to the American side, and then to European capitals, “contain initiatives related to NATO.”

“It makes sense, apart from the track of bilateral Russian-American negotiations, to involve negotiations between Russia and NATO,” the Kremlin speaker said. He stressed that these will be “important and very responsible negotiations.”

Details, according to him, are still being finalized by diplomatic channels.

This date will be confirmed or re-confirmed (NATO calls January 12) and the composition of the negotiators will be formed, Peskov noted.

As for the reaction to NATO's counter-demands on Russia, the necessity of which has already been declared by many Western politicians, then, according to Peskov, one must first wait “what position will be formulated by the alliance in response” to Moscow's proposals. “It would be premature to say otherwise,” he stressed.


Peskov commented on preparations for the presidential elections in 2024

Photo: Natalia Gubernatorova

Dmitry Peskov commented on media reports that the Kremlin began preparations for the presidential elections in 2024, in which Vladimir Putin is expected to take part

Peskov said that “preparation for each election is the essence of the daily work of the Presidential Administration and the President himself.” The Kremlin speaker explained that in the elections, the president receives a credit of trust from the population, and all further work is aimed at justifying this trust. The next elections are, according to Peskov, an exam “when people confirm or do not confirm trust.”

“Everything that is being done (between the two elections – MK) is preparation,” Peskov said.

Recall that the next presidential elections will be held in 2024 year. Under the updated Constitution, Putin has the right to run for the presidency again, but has not yet confirmed that he will run for the presidency.


Lavrov announced negotiations with the United States on security after the New Year holidays

Photo: Natalia Gubernatorova

Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov announced negotiations with the United States on security guarantees. According to him, the parties will begin discussions immediately after the New Year holidays.

“It is with the United States that we will conduct the main round of negotiations, which will take place immediately after the end of the New Year holidays,” Lavrov said on the Soloviev Live Youtube channel.

The Minister also reported that high-ranking Russian military personnel will take part in the Russia-NATO Council. He noted that the Russian side expects the same from the alliance.

Lavrov added that Moscow cannot but react to NATO being in close proximity to its borders. “The fact that they have already swung, as Putin said, on the threshold of our house, of course, this cannot leave us indifferent,” the Foreign Minister emphasized.

Earlier, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg proposed to hold the Council Russia -NATO early next year. The Russian Foreign Ministry reported that it has already received a corresponding proposal from the alliance and is considering it.

See also: Ukraine came up with a demand for Russia in negotiations with NATO


Japan overtook Russia in military spending: experts assessed the consequences

“Preparedness for a Potential War in the Pacific”

Japan's defense budget for fiscal 2022 is increased by more than 1% compared to 2021. Officially, it is 5.4 trillion yen ($ 47.2 billion). It exceeded Russia's defense budget. According to experts, this is a remarkable fact, since it testifies to the revived military ambitions of the Land of the Rising Sun, which suffered a crushing defeat in World War II.

Photo: AP

In principle, Russia might not be too worried about the military spending of its eastern neighbor. Well, she overtook and overtook. Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu recently said that in terms of the military budget, Russia is actually in 9th place among the leading countries of the world. The United States is ahead with a budget of $ 775 billion for 2022. Then China, which is still 2-3 times behind the United States in terms of military spending, but 5 times ahead of Russia. Ahead of us are Great Britain, France, Saudi Arabia … It is believed that the defense budget of the Russian Federation is about $ 45 billion.

But in the case of Japan, there is one circumstance that should not be forgotten. This country has territorial claims against Russia. It openly claims 4 islands of the Kuril ridge, which Russia got after the Second World War.

And Japan is also the closest ally of the United States. There are dozens of American military facilities on its territory. The armed forces of Japan and the United States are so closely linked that they can be viewed as a single military entity that poses a threat to us in the Far East strategic direction.

Recently, for example, a representative of the Japanese Embassy in Moscow was summoned to the Russian Foreign Ministry in connection with with Japanese-American naval exercises in the area of ​​the island of Hokkaido.

In total, there are 94 American military bases on the Japanese islands. The grouping of American servicemen is more than 50 thousand people. The US annually spends about $ 9 billion on the maintenance of its military infrastructure in Japan. And it is likely to increase in the coming years in connection with the US plans to contain China, well, and Russia, of course. American carriers of nuclear weapons are based at the airfields of Japan, capable of striking our Far Eastern cities.

The well-known political scientist Semyon Bagdasarov commented on the next diplomatic demarche of the Russian Foreign Ministry regarding Japan. This time, a representative of the Japanese embassy in Moscow was protesting in connection with the exhibition in Tokyo dedicated to the South Kurils and the Japanese-American exercises Resolute Dragon 2021.

Pacific Ocean, – wrote Bagdasarov in his Telegram channel. – Japan will in no way come to terms with the fact that the islands were transferred to the Soviet Union as a result of World War II. And the United States is actively working with allies not only on the western borders, but also in the east. So we get problems on all fronts. ”

So, we should watch the military preparations of Japan especially carefully. And at the same time to strengthen its Pacific Fleet. It is no coincidence that a series of six Project 636.6 diesel-electric submarines armed with Caliber long-range missiles is being built for it. Nuclear-powered missile carriers of the Borey-A and Yasen-M projects are also being built. Some are armed with Bulava intercontinental missiles, while others are armed with invulnerable Zircon hypersonic missiles. So, presumably, until the “second Tsushima”, when the Japanese fleet sank the Russian squadron, it will not reach the Pacific Ocean.


The media told how the Central Bank of the Russian Federation will control all money transfers of Russians from January 1

The regulator will start asking banks for data on all money transfers between individuals.

The Russian financial regulator has sent banks a new reporting form regarding money transfers of citizens.

According to the updated documents, the Bank of Russia will request information on all transfers between individuals, including the personal data of the sender and recipient.

According to experts, such a measure is necessary to combat illegal online casinos, crypto exchangers and businesses that accept payments for personal cards.

RBC writes about this with reference to three sources in the payment market.

As Oleg Mashtalyar, Deputy Head of the Board of Sovcombank, told the publication, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation will begin such monitoring as early as January 1, 2022.

The main goal innovations will be the optimization of data provided by banks, as well as obtaining up-to-date information on payments.

The information will be used for market analysis.

According to the clarifications, the reporting will include all incoming and outgoing transfers between individuals :

  • from card to card;
  • from account to account;
  • from e-wallet to e-wallet, from card to wallet and vice versa;
  • from the account of a subscriber of a telecom operator to a wallet or card and back;
  • payments through the Fast Payment System;
  • cross-border transfers by individuals;
  • money transfers without opening an account, including through payment terminals;
  • transfers of an individual between their own accounts in one bank;
  • transfers through money transfer systems, for example Western Union, CONTACT.

Requests will begin to form for all transfers within a certain time period.

In some cases, the regulator will be able to receive information on specific operations.

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation notes that over 9 months of the outgoing year, Russians have transferred about 42.5 trillion rubles to each other by cards. About 8.5 billion transactions were made.

Most of all, Sberbank is present on the market in this regard, through which more than 0.8 billion transfers worth 4.7 trillion rubles have been made since the beginning of 2021.

According to experts, such monitoring by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is aimed at to track suspicious transactions, which include:

  • An unusually large number of individuals as both payers and recipients of funds (more than 10 per day and more than 50 per month).
  • An unusually large number of transactions for crediting and withdrawing funds (more than 30 transactions per day).
  • Significant volumes of transactions for debiting and crediting funds between individuals (more than 100 thousand rubles per day, more than 1 million rubles per month).
  • The card or wallet is not used to pay for goods or services.

Later, the situation was commented on in the Bank of Russia itself.

As reported by TASS, citing a source of the regulator, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is not going to introduce new reporting for banks to control the operations of individuals, but the work carried out by the regulator does not imply total control.

& # 8220; We plan to collect anonymized data from those banks that provide p2p payment services only if there is a risk of using their platforms for illegal online casino operations and bookmakers & # 8221 ;, & # 8211; explained in the Bank of Russia.

Earlier, TopNews wrote that the tax office began to track data on the accounts of Russians.

According to experts, innovations will hit the pockets of self-employed citizens.

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Zelensky’s “10 steps”: Kiev refused to freeze the conflict in Donbass

Experts have analyzed the proposals of the President of Ukraine

The Ukrainian authorities have proposed ten steps to resolve the conflict in Donbass. President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy previously stated that at least a few of them could be implemented by the end of 2021. However, representatives of the DPR, LPR and Russia in the Trilateral Contact Group (TCG) considered his proposal an imitation of the negotiation process. In turn, the experts interviewed by MK believe that Zelensky, in principle, is not going to end the conflict, or at least freeze it.

Photo: Still from video

Zelensky's first three steps boil down to the fact that the Ukrainian delegation to the TCG will do everything in its power to renew the truce, unblock the checkpoints on the contact line and exchange prisoners.

In parallel, the Ukrainian authorities propose to return to the discussion of the special order of local self-government in certain areas of Donetsk and Lugansk regions (ORDLO). Then it is proposed to discuss the security of the OSCE observers and their full access to any facilities in the Donbas.

From the sixth to the eighth steps of Zelensky – negotiations with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss with him gas transit, exchange of prisoners, de-escalation on the border between Russia and Ukraine and a truce in Donbass.

After that, the turn of the Normandy summit will come. … In the final, the Ukrainian authorities propose to submit for consideration by the Verkhovna Rada bills on local self-government of ORDLO, amnesty for participants in the war in Donbass, decentralization of Ukraine, creation of a free economic zone and holding elections in certain regions of Donbass.

Meanwhile, in 2021 there will no longer be negotiations within the framework of the contact group, and the parties to the conflict could not agree on any of the above. In particular, this happened due to the fact that official Kiev does not consider Russia a mediator, but participants in the conflict in Donbass. The Ukrainian authorities refuse on principle from direct negotiations with representatives of the DPR and LPR.

For example, the head of the Russian delegation to the contact group, Boris Gryzlov, claims that the self-proclaimed republics offered Kiev to unblock checkpoints, having previously agreed on their operating hours and sanitary and epidemiological requirements. Naturally, the Ukrainian authorities could not agree to this, so as not to legitimize the DPR and LPR.

In turn, the head of the LPR Foreign Ministry Vladislav Deinogo, commenting on the results of the last round of the TCG negotiations in 2021, said that Kiev is not interested in the implementation of the Minsk agreements. Instead, according to Deinogo, the Ukrainian authorities only create the appearance of violent activity in order to convince the West of their peacefulness and aggressiveness of Russia.

The experts interviewed by MK generally agreed with this assessment of Kiev's diplomatic actions. Expert of the International Center for Advanced Study Nikolai Kapitonenko believes that Zelensky is basically not ready to take any peacekeeping steps in Donbass, because all of them will be regarded as concessions to Russia, and this is unacceptable for him.

“From time to time, here and there some initiatives of varying degrees of adequacy emerge, but they do not lead to anything. Perhaps Kiev is trying to emphasize Russia's responsibility for the conflict and to show the internal audience that something is being done. But, in general, the situation is in a reliable impasse, and nothing can get it out of there, “says Kapitonenko.

The international expert recalled that at the end of 2019 and early 2020, Zelensky had already made attempts to restore trusting relations with Russia with small concessions, in order to then move on to more serious issues. For example, this concerned the creation of the Advisory Council under the TCG, the exchange of prisoners and the truce, which met with resistance from the national-patriotic part of society.

“As a result, the question of the implementation of the political part of the Minsk agreements was raised, and that was the end of it. Zelensky realized that even making small concessions, he would only lose his political stability. For the same reason, the President of Ukraine abandoned the idea of ​​freezing the conflict. He decided that it would be safer for him to maintain a low-intensity conflict, with shooting and people dying, “- accused Kapitonenko of the Ukrainian president.

At the same time, he notes that even if Zelensky wanted to negotiate with Moscow , he would hardly have succeeded. Kapitonenko believes that the Kremlin no longer trusts the President of Ukraine and does not consider him as a party to the negotiations.

The head of the Institute for Peacekeeping Initiatives and Conflictology, Denis Denisov, is also confident that Zelensky is simply chatting up the negotiation process.

“Kiev still tried to implement the first few points in practice. But there is no need to speak for sure about negotiations with Putin under the current conditions – they are unrealistic. If this is not a provocation, then Zelensky's attempt to attract attention … All the talk that Kiev had no other way to convey information to Moscow is a lie. There is a channel “Ermak – Kozak”. There has never been such a case that one of them tried to get through, and he did not succeed, “Denisov noted.


Sick fantasy: experts explained Arestovich’s nonsense about the creation of the USSR by Ukrainians

The Ukrainians invented Russia and taught Peter to eat with a fork

Advisor to the head of the Ukrainian presidential office Alexei Arestovich said that the Ukrainians created Russia and the Soviet Union. “We can repeat it,” the Ukrainian politician warned. In particular, Arestovich cited Feofan Prokopovich as an example, who, allegedly being a Ukrainian, invented Russia. The adviser also remembered Mazepa, who taught Peter the Great to eat with a fork, and more than two thousand Ukrainian Heroes of the Soviet Union who defended the country during the Great Patriotic War.

Alexey Arestovich. A frame from the video.

Arestovich told about all this in an interview with the Politeka YouTube channel. At the same time, he did not skimp on insults against the Russians, who, in his opinion, do not know their own history.

Meanwhile, the Ukrainian political analyst Kirill Barashkov explained to MK that such views are less professed in his country 2% of the population.

“Arestovich is a crazy parody of a transgender person. How can you even take what he says seriously? The man got the nickname “Lyusya Arestovich”. – says Barashkov. – In addition, the representatives of Ukraine do not promote the idea that Kiev created Russia, or even more so the Soviet Union, neither at the official level, nor at any other level. On the contrary, Kiev is trying to prove that Ukraine was occupied by the USSR. You cannot create something at the same time and be occupied by this something. Following this logic, you can bury yourself so deeply that you will never dig back. However, this only adds even more madness to Arestovich. ”

In the 1990s, Arestovich began his career as an actor in the Black Square theater, where he served for 17 years. In addition, he studied at the Odessa Institute of Ground Forces and became a military translator. From 1999 to 2005, he tried to build a career as an intelligence officer in the Main Intelligence Directorate of Ukraine, but then returned to acting. Arestovich starred in advertising for vodka, chocolate, played in 15 TV series and films.

Most of all, the audience remembered his role in the image of Lucy Zaitseva in the film “Don't be afraid, I'm near.” In the future, this role became for Arestovich something of a shameful stigma, and he has plenty of enemies and opponents.

The fact is that during the reign of Petro Poroshenko in Ukraine, Arestovich was his faithful propagandist. In particular, he acted as a military expert, glorifying Ukrainian weapons and denigrating Russia and everyone who did not want to fight it. In 2017, Arestovich made a public repentance for his propaganda, calling it a lie. True, at the same time, he stressed that there is probably nothing wrong with propaganda, but it must be dealt with anonymously.

Apparently, the new president, Vladimir Zelensky, liked the revelation, because he made him not an ordinary “gun-loader”, and the speaker of the Ukrainian delegation to the Trilateral Contact Group on the settlement of the conflict in Donbass. But the majority of Ukrainians, as they were dissatisfied with his figure, remained.

“Initially, Arestovich tried to act in the information field as a military expert. It seemed to many that he was well informed and understood what was happening on the battlefield. But in 2017, he stated that he was just doing propaganda. At that moment, many journalists simply deleted him from their expert bases. But later he still managed to return to the information space as a broad-based expert – a talking head, ”Ukrainian political analyst Taras Kozub tells MK. – He did not appear at Zelensky right away, but only a year and a half ago. Apparently, Arestovich was taken on the principle of loyalty and residual. Often he makes strange and absurd statements, but at the same time, he accurately reflects the mood that is in the office of the president. In particular, Arestovich's words about the Soviet Union can be shared by Zelensky's team. The Ukrainians really developed the USSR, fought and won the Great Patriotic War, and so on. It's another matter that Arestovich spoke incorrectly, but he has such a peculiarity. ”


The results of the KidSkills children’s championship were summed up in Moscow

The results of the Moscow Children's Championship KidSkills, which became a record in terms of the number of participants and competencies, were summed up in the capital, the press service of the Moscow Mayor reported.

“ This year, more than 14 thousand people from 544 educational organizations of the capital competed in 26 competencies '', & mdash; said the deputy head of the Moscow Department of Education and Science Alexander Tverskoy. & nbsp;

The awards were received by 352 teams from 207 educational organizations of the capital: 112 gold, 119 silver and 121 bronze medals.

For the second year in a row, the Moscow State Educational Complex won in the team event in terms of the number of winners and prize-winners. The second place was taken by preschoolers and students of the school at the College of Small Business No. 4, the third – & mdash; pupils of the educational institution “ School in Nekrasovka. ''

This year the participants competed in two children's categories: 5-7 years old and 8-10 years old, as well as in the family category FamilySkills. In the latter, adults performed with children 10-14 years old.

“ For the first time, we invited parents to the championship to participate in the new FamilySkills category. This format brings families closer together, teaches them to support each other in a variety of situations '', & mdash; Tverskoy emphasized.

Regardless of the competence, the participants had to show the skills necessary in adult life: the ability to work in a team, business communication and stress resistance.

“ In the competence “ Mobile robotics '' real skill is required: the guys assemble and program the robot. The competition area was an imitation of the workshop of the KamAZ plant, where robots deliver spare parts. Everything is automated & mdash; a robot picks up a part in one place and brings it to another. Kids of five & mdash; seven years have shown brilliant results '', & mdash; Maria Armanova, chief expert of the Mobile Robotics competence, shared the success of the participants.

Recall that the first KidSkills championship for children was held in Moscow in 2018. Five competencies were presented at it. The next year, the number of competencies was increased to 10.


A complete set of Russian spelling rules may be ready by the end of 2024

The complete set of rules for Russian spelling is expected to be agreed with the Spelling Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences by the end of 2024. This was announced by the chairman of the commission, head of the department of culture of the Russian speech of the Institute of the Russian language Alexei Shmelev.

According to him, a short set of basic rules of Russian spelling has already been prepared, it is assumed that it will be possible to agree on it in January next year, reports TASS .

The complete set will be prepared at the Institute of the Russian Language. VV Vinogradov in electronic form, and in the future it will be continuously replenished.

Earlier, the head of the Ministry of Education Sergei Kravtsov said that the department had eliminated contradictions with the Spelling Commission on the new set of rules.

In November, the ministry published a draft resolution that defines a set of spelling and punctuation rules that meets the current state of the Russian language. However, the Spelling Commission of the Russian Academy of Sciences criticized this document.


The Ministry of Justice included two LGBT groups in the register of foreign agents

The Ministry of Justice of Russia has included the LGBT + “ Reverse '' group in the register of unregistered foreign agent associations and the St. Petersburg LGBT Initiative Group “ Coming Out ''.

The agency's website says that these associations were included in the specified list in accordance with the requirements of the current legislation of the country.

It is noted that this is unregistered public associations that function without acquiring the rights of a legal entity.

In mid-December, the Ministry of Justice entered the Far East movement Mayak into the register of unregistered public associations-foreign agents, which provides assistance to LGBT people and women victims of violence, as well as NPO Lilith.


“I won’t wish it on the enemy either.” Sibiryachka lived for 13 years in the well of the heating main

A resident of Novosibirsk spent 13 & nbsp; years in the well of a heating main, left without a home due to the cruelty of a relative. A year ago, she went blind & nbsp; and, in & nbsp; in fact, she was just waiting for death underground. But & nbsp; her & nbsp; came to & nbsp; help activists of the charity organization “ Mayak ''.

Lost everything

“ What I & nbsp; experienced, I & nbsp; will not & nbsp; wish even the worst enemy. I & nbsp; lost a loved one, my home and & nbsp; even my sight. I & nbsp; & mdash; Shnyrikova Galina , i'm homeless. Lived 13 & nbsp; years in & nbsp; well & raquo;, & nbsp; & mdash; this is how a new video clip of the Novosibirsk video blogger Dmitry Kabanov begins. He was & nbsp; one of the first to tell the general public about the & nbsp; fate of a 75-year-old woman who was recently actually rescued by activists of the Mayak charity. For & nbsp; survival in a northern city without a roof over her head, she was & nbsp; doomed by the cruelty of a distant relative.

“ I & nbsp; lived without registration with & nbsp; a man of 18 & nbsp; years here near & nbsp; city, & nbsp; & mdash; Galina Shnyrikova tells her story. & mdash; & nbsp; But & nbsp; he & nbsp; got very sick and & nbsp; died in & nbsp; 2008 & nbsp; year. His own nephew, his elder brother's son, just kicked me out. He & nbsp; took all the documents for the & nbsp; house, for & nbsp; everything, although we & nbsp; together bought this house. That's how I & nbsp; stayed on the & nbsp; street. There was nowhere to go & raquo ;.

Video blogger Dmitry Kabanov's video, dedicated to the story of Galina Shnyrikova.

In & nbsp; Novosibirsk, there was no one who could & nbsp; to shelter Galina. Yes, the & nbsp; woman and & nbsp; was ashamed to admit to & nbsp; that she was & nbsp; thrown out of the & nbsp; house. At first, she spent the night on the & nbsp; street, cried and & nbsp; didn & nbsp; know what to do next. With & nbsp; hunger not & nbsp; died only thanks to the help of such & nbsp; the same as she, poor fellows. For & nbsp; for example, at the & nbsp; train station, she was taught to collect leftover food that is thrown away by train passengers. And & nbsp; as the circle of communication expanded, Galina comprehended the “ science '' deeper and deeper. survival on & nbsp; street.

Conditions in which Galina lived for 13 years. Still from the video

Warm “ crypt ''

At the & nbsp; time, the woman worked at the & nbsp; local CHP, where she was engaged in thermal insulation. In the & nbsp; hatch of the heating main, where she once worked, Galina and & nbsp; found her shelter for & nbsp; as much as 13 & nbsp; and a half years. Everything there is teeming with rats, but it is very warm near the pipes, on which you can even cook food. Gradually this place turned into a & nbsp; winter “ hostel '' for local homeless people, whom a kind woman let in without question.

“ Different people at & nbsp; I had, & nbsp; & mdash; Galina Shnyrikova continues her story on & nbsp; frames of the video. & mdash; & nbsp; I accepted & nbsp; everyone, because it's a pity, she's like that. It happened that in the morning you get up & nbsp; & mdash; the dead man lies. It was with me. Got up & nbsp; & mdash; lies nearby. I began to wake the guys up, I said & nbsp; to them: & bdquo; Sanya is not moving & nbsp;. & bdquo; Yes & nbsp; no, he & nbsp; still alive, warm & ldquo;, & nbsp; & mdash; answer. And & nbsp; how it & nbsp; will not & nbsp; be when the pipes are hot. Of course, it will be & nbsp; warm, not & nbsp; cold.

The woman got food from the & nbsp; '' feeders '', as the homeless people call the trash cans. Every day, she herself or with & nbsp; went out of & nbsp; her well on & nbsp; bypassing garbage cans. In addition to leftovers, they collected cans and & nbsp; metal from & nbsp; broken equipment for delivery. Galina also asked for alms in & nbsp; different places of the city, although this occupation her & nbsp; most of all did not & nbsp; like. In & nbsp; mostly she didn’t & nbsp; begging, but & nbsp; just stood quietly with & nbsp; a glass for change in & nbsp; hand.

Galina is packing her things for the move. Still from video

Lighthouse for Galina

The worst thing for her on the & nbsp; street was the punks who do not & nbsp; know pity for the & nbsp; homeless. 'Youngsters' can easily attack and & nbsp; even kill. According to the & nbsp; woman, in & nbsp; past years this was not & nbsp; was. From & nbsp; emotional experiences and & nbsp; unbearable living conditions, Galina gradually lost her sight, and & nbsp; a year ago she was completely blind. Says, from & nbsp; it became very scary. Since & nbsp; September, she didn't even & nbsp; go up the & nbsp; street and & nbsp; lived only thanks to the fact that homeless people brought her & nbsp; food.

A very sad end awaited Galina Shnyrikova, if & nbsp; would not accidentally find out about & nbsp; in & nbsp; the Mayak charity. Recently, her & nbsp; volunteers settled a woman in a & nbsp; hostel, and now she has everything she needs. They promise to start restoring the woman's documents & nbsp; and, if possible, arrange her & nbsp; pension and & nbsp; arrange a boarding house. And & nbsp; Galina is now once again convinced that the world is not & nbsp; without good people.

Galina at the hostel. A still from the video

'People, I am & nbsp; 13 & nbsp; years old homeless and & nbsp; saw everything, & nbsp; & mdash; the woman addresses the & nbsp; viewers at the & nbsp; end of the video. & mdash; & nbsp; Be kind to each & nbsp; friend, we all walk under God. Teach your kids how to handle people. We are & nbsp; the same people as & nbsp; you. Please, I ask you, help each other, help others. Thanks to these people who brought me here. Good health to you. God save you! ''


The last day of the USSR. How the big country was closed

Plot World history with Andrey Sidorchik

December 1991 was a very strange month. The habitual expectation of the most beloved holiday in the & nbsp; Soviet Union was combined with a & nbsp; feeling of confusion and & nbsp; fear of what was happening. Although people really could not & nbsp; understand what was going on.

A King Without an Army

At the & nbsp; referendum in & nbsp; March 1991, the overwhelming majority of citizens spoke in favor of & nbsp; preservation of the Soviet Union. However, the subsequent work on a new Union Treaty led to an & nbsp; unexpected result: countries within & nbsp; their former borders, in & nbsp; in accordance with & nbsp; it, were no longer & nbsp; would be. Yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; powers were distributed so that it was just right to speak not & nbsp; about & nbsp; federation, but & nbsp; about & nbsp; & nbsp; confederation.

Confrontation of ambitions of Mikhail Gorbachev and & nbsp; leaders of the union republics (in & nbsp; ; first of all & mdash; Boris Yeltsin ) aggravated the crisis. At the same time, people were actually deceived, not & nbsp; doing what they voted for.

The desperate rebellion of dissenters in the & nbsp; Soviet leadership, known as the GKChP, was initially doomed to failure. The allied ministers spoke harshly, pulled out the troops, but & nbsp; did not dare to give the order to suppress the resistance by all available means. And & nbsp; this was the beginning of the end.

Returning from self-imprisonment in Foros, Gorbachev became a “ king without an army. '' The head of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs committed suicide, the Minister of Defense and the chairman of the KGB were thrown into jail. The new appointees were no longer guided by & nbsp; & nbsp; the President of the USSR, but & nbsp; & nbsp; the leader of the RSFSR who had real power.

Those who wanted to finish off the Soviet Union saw in & nbsp; Gorbachev an annoying obstacle getting underfoot. Supporters of a single state did not & nbsp; perceive Gorbachev as anything other than a traitor.

“ It seemed that the fate of the USSR was only my problem ''

And & nbsp; after all, the Belovezhskaya agreements on December 8 & nbsp; December 8, 1991 came as a shock to the majority. Even Mikhail Sergeevich himself did not believe in & nbsp; their & nbsp; reality. On & nbsp; the next day in the & nbsp; Kremlin, he & nbsp; tried to get answers to & nbsp; questions from & nbsp; Yeltsin, but & nbsp; after a skirmish, pointing to & nbsp; a place in & nbsp; Gorbachev's office, he said: & nbsp; I will sit & nbsp; & nbsp; this chair./p>

The general public learned about this disgusting scene years later. And & nbsp; then everything that happened to the people remained a mystery.

At the & nbsp; celebration of his 85th birthday, Mikhail Sergeevich described the days after the signing of the Belovezhskaya Agreements: “ For & nbsp; for 17 & nbsp; days following the & nbsp; Belovezhskaya Agreements, I & nbsp; waited for a reaction from & nbsp; the intelligentsia, & nbsp; from the people. Of course, the country was in & nbsp; shock. But & nbsp; nobody & nbsp; took to the & nbsp; streets. It seemed that the fate of the USSR was just my problem. The decree on & nbsp; my resignation was not & nbsp; was. I & nbsp; made this decision on my own. ” Yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; did not & nbsp; Gorbachev turned to & nbsp; these days to the & nbsp; people with & nbsp; a request for & nbsp; support.

Oath without mentioning the Soviet Union

& Nbsp; those who continued to feel like a Soviet citizen did not & nbsp; had any opportunities for operational self-organization. Yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; there was simply no & nbsp; leader who could & nbsp; be believed.

Yes & nbsp; and & nbsp; Gorbachev himself did not & nbsp; in practice & nbsp; resist anything. For example, on December 17 & nbsp; he approved a new text of the military oath, in which the Soviet Union was no longer & nbsp; mentioned at all.

On December 21 & nbsp; December 1991, at the & nbsp; meeting of the presidents in & nbsp; Alma-Ata, eight more republics joined the Commonwealth of Independent States created by the RSFSR: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The Alma-Ata Declaration and the & nbsp; protocol to the & nbsp; Belovezhskaya Agreement on the creation of the CIS were signed. Mikhail Sergeevich was notified of & nbsp; that the post of President of the USSR was being abolished.

It was already the end, final and & nbsp; irrevocable. But in spite of everything, I wanted to believe in the & nbsp; impossible. And when the address of the President of the USSR to the people was announced, many still hoped for something.

'We will be glad to receive you after everything settles down'

Gorbachev's mind, honor and & nbsp; no longer believed in & nbsp; But & nbsp; all of a sudden, though & nbsp; would be the fear of losing power would make him remember the & nbsp; oath to the people, & nbsp; the commitments he & nbsp; given to them, & nbsp; the very referendum on & nbsp; preservation of the USSR, which was his initiative …

But & nbsp; Mikhail Sergeevich was not & nbsp; going to give the last and & nbsp; decisive battle. He was & nbsp; preparing to hand over cases in & nbsp; exchange for & nbsp; guarantees of personal well-being.

On the morning of December 25 & nbsp; a meeting of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR took place, which approved the Law of the RSFSR No. & nbsp; 2094 ‑ I & laquo; On & nbsp; change of the name of the state Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ''. The Russian Federation appeared.

Gorbachev, before addressing the & nbsp; people, called the US President George W. Bush , announcing that he will announce & nbsp; his resignation. He also & nbsp; talked about & nbsp; the upcoming transfer of the “ nuclear suitcase '' Yeltsin.

“ You & nbsp; will be a welcome guest, we & nbsp; will be happy to receive you after everything settles down '', & nbsp; & mdash; promised the American leader Mikhail Sergeevich.

'The threat of world war has been removed': what Gorbachev said in his & nbsp; last speech

Before appearing before his fellow citizens in the & nbsp; rank of a leader, Gorbachev signed a decree “ On & nbsp; the resignation by the President of the USSR of the powers of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the USSR Armed Forces and & nbsp; the abolition of the Defense Council under the President of the USSR. ''

“ Dear Compatriots! Fellow citizens! Due to the current situation with the & nbsp; formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, I & nbsp; cease my activity as president of the USSR. I take this decision for & nbsp; considerations of principle & raquo;, & nbsp; & mdash; Gorbachev began his speech.

In & nbsp; this speech, almost nothing was said about & nbsp; mistakes, not & nbsp; was not & nbsp; a shadow of remorse. Mikhail Sergeevich preferred to talk about & nbsp; achievements: “ Society received freedom, liberated itself politically and & nbsp; spiritually. And & nbsp; this is the most important conquest, which we & nbsp; to & nbsp; have not yet & nbsp; realized, because we have not yet & nbsp; learned how to use freedom … & raquo;

Three decades later, some of the provisions of Gorbachev's last speech sound like a form of mockery. For example, on the & nbsp; economy: “ When turning the economy towards the & nbsp; market, it is important to remember: this is done for the sake of man. In & nbsp; this difficult time, everything must be done for his social protection, especially for the elderly and & nbsp; children.

Already at the & nbsp; very beginning of 1992, marketers will throw millions of people into the & nbsp; maelstrom of “ shock therapy '', leaving everyone to get out at the & nbsp; measure of their strength. Old people will scour the & nbsp; trash cans in & nbsp; in search of food, and & nbsp; talk about & nbsp; social protection will cause only a bitter grin.

And & nbsp; this is what Gorbachev said about & nbsp; international relations: “ The Cold War is over, the arms race has been stopped and & nbsp; insane militarization of the country, which has disfigured our economy, public consciousness and & nbsp; morality. The threat of a world war has been removed … We & nbsp; opened up to the world, refused & nbsp; interference in & nbsp; other people's affairs, & nbsp; the use of troops outside the country. And & nbsp; we were answered with trust, solidarity and & nbsp; respect.

Respect turned into a rapid advancement of NATO to the east, including in & nbsp; its composition not only the former countries of the socialist bloc, but & nbsp; and & nbsp; former Soviet republics. The new Cold War against our country is being waged in & nbsp; conditions for us much worse than & nbsp; those in which Gorbachev took the country in & nbsp; 1985.

“ I am confident that sooner or later our common efforts will bear fruit, our peoples will live in a & nbsp; prosperous and & nbsp; democratic society. I wish you all the very best '', & nbsp; & mdash; said Mikhail Sergeevich in & nbsp; the end of the speech.

Change flag

At & nbsp; 19 & nbsp; hours 35 & nbsp; minutes 25 & nbsp; December 1991, the flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was lowered from the flagpole over the Kremlin dome. The banner, which once became a symbol of victory over fascism, the conquest of outer space by mankind, descended shamefully, almost like a thief, in the same way as a large country was destroyed.

Ten minutes later, the triumphant Yeltsin was informed that a Russian tricolor.

Gorbachev, having handed over the cases, went to & nbsp; dinner in a narrow circle of confidants. He had a well-fed and & nbsp; comfortable life ahead of him, honor and & nbsp; respect from the & nbsp; side of Americans and & nbsp; Europeans. The & nbsp; abandoned by him & nbsp; citizens of a country that no longer & nbsp; was & mdash; pain, fear and & nbsp; struggle for & nbsp; survival.

To argue about & nbsp; whether it was possible to save the USSR, historians will be for a long time. But the & nbsp; first and & nbsp; the last president of the Soviet Union didn’t strike a finger on the & nbsp; finger for the sake of saving the state.

A few years later, Mikhail Sergeevich will appear in a & nbsp; advertisement for pizza. In the West, this will be considered a good advertising ploy. And & nbsp; on the & nbsp; territory of the former USSR they will bitterly notice that Gorbachev has finally found a case according to his abilities.


Field work. The first reactor in Eurasia was built in an army tent

The domestic nuclear industry owes much of its birth to Laboratory No. 2. There, on the north-western outskirts of Moscow (then it was still an outskirts), in just 16 months, an experiment was prepared to launch the first uranium-graphite nuclear reactor F-1 in Eurasia … Its launch took place on December 25, 1946. In honor of the 75th anniversary of this event, we recall how the history of the birth of atomic energy was created.

In February 1943, a young forty-year-old professor was appointed head of Laboratory No. 2, organized for the creation of nuclear weapons, and the scientific leader of the atomic project. > Igor Kurchatov . On August 20, 1945, the atomic Special Committee under the USSR Council of People's Commissars was created, headed by Lavrenty Beria.

The Committee initially included two physicists. Igor Kurchatov was appointed scientific supervisor of all works, and Kapitsa , who was not an expert in nuclear physics, was supposed to oversee certain areas (low-temperature technology for separating uranium isotopes).

It is believed that at first they wanted to give the leadership of work on the creation of an atomic reactor directly to Peter Kapitsa, a very famous scientist at that time. Kurchatov, on the other hand, was quite young and famous, as they say, in narrow circles. However, Kapitsa was dissatisfied with the methods of Beria's leadership, he spoke very impartially and sharply about the General Commissioner of State Security & nbsp; & mdash; both personally and professionally.

Kapitsa wrote to Stalin a letter asking to be relieved of his duties on the Committee, but there was no response. A little later, Kapitsa wrote a second, more detailed one, after which Stalin agreed to his resignation. & Nbsp; In the second letter, Kapitsa described how it was necessary, in his opinion, to carry out the atomic project, defining in detail an action plan for two years. The problem is that the plan proposed by Kapitsa, although it was fast enough in execution, was not fast enough for the current political situation around the development of the first Soviet atomic bomb.

So, Laboratory No. 2 was allocated a plot of land with an area of ​​120 hectares in the Pokrovsky-Streshnevo area. On this territory, there was a building of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, almost completed before the war, where laboratories and rooms for employees could be quickly located.

For the construction of the reactor, which was called the “ boiler '', uranium, high-purity graphite, and a number of new materials were needed. In the shortest possible time, it was necessary to provide geological exploration work & mdash; & nbsp; for uranium mining. It was required to create a new metallurgy from scratch, to establish the production of the purest graphite. Recall that the slightest impurities in this material absorb neutrons, so the nuclear decay reaction would stop.

Everything was done for the first time. No one had the experience of creating such complex installations as a nuclear reactor. At first, scientists conducted experiments, studied the characteristics of uranium blocks, and chose the optimal sizes. The work was carried out in an open field, in a large army tent.

They used 450 tons of graphite and almost 50 tons of uranium, which were transferred to the tent literally on hand. It was necessary to fold, study and disassemble four models of the installation, and only the fifth became a working reactor. It consisted of a structure of uranium-graphite lattice, cadmium control rods, remotely operated, experimental channels and wells, & nbsp; to protect from radiation placed below ground level.

By the end of 1946, construction was completed the world's first special building with a reactor shaft, providing reliable protection from radiation and provided with radiation monitoring devices.

All work was carried out in strict secrecy. In the documents, the object was called the “ Assembly Workshop '' or 'Building K' & mdash; & nbsp; Kurchatov building. According to the recollections of the employees of Laboratory No. 2, a special encryption system was used for the records. For example, the boiler was called an electrolyzer, instead of the word “ uranium '' wrote silicon.

The youngest specialist of the team was only 15 years old. All were forced to sign a non-disclosure receipt of the nature of the work carried out before the launch.

On the evening of December 25, 1946, the last, 62nd layer of the core was laid. Igor Kurchatov sat down at the boiler control panel and began to remove the cadmium rods from the core. When the thermal power released in the boiler reached several tens of watts, Kurchatov stabilized the process: using an emergency protection rod, he muffled the reaction. Boiler worked for about four hours.

The next day, Lavrenty Beria, chairman of the atomic special committee, arrived at Laboratory No. 2. Kurchatov demonstrated to him a controlled chain reaction of uranium fission. This ambitious project took only 16 months to complete. Three days later, the country's leadership was reported, “ With the help of the built uranium-graphite boiler, we are & nbsp; now able to solve the most important issues & hellip; & nbsp; & nbsp; Nuclear weapons and energy have turned from a dream into a reality. This is how the USSR began the atomic era, which continues to this day.


The secret of the “Special folder”. How Kurchatov became the winner in the “atomic troika”

Today it is possible to enumerate for a long time what the Soviet Union was the first in. Space, some types of weapons, medical research. In some ways, they are trying to challenge our superiority. But there are things that are undeniable. This is, first of all, everything connected with the atom. On December 25, 1946, the F-1 atomic reactor was built in the USSR. It became the first not only in the Union, but also in Europe.

Test month

& hellip; Champagne, as usual, was poured five minutes before the New Year. The toast was also usually sounded: for happiness, for peace, friendship. And only Kurchatov suddenly added two words: “ For our successes! '' & Nbsp;

Only a few people understood the hidden meaning of them, and only then, many years later, the whole world learned about them! After all, it was about the launch of the first nuclear reactor in Europe, an event that changed the fate of mankind in the 20th century.

Igor Kurchatov, 1930s. Photo:

But on New Year's Eve, 1947, only two guessed about it – & mdash; Igor Kurchatov and Lev Artsimovich .

December was a test month for both scientists. Artsimovich managed to obtain crumbs of uranium-235 with the help of electromagnetic isotope separation. His achievement was encouraging: the path to obtaining nuclear explosives was open.

At that time, Igor Kurchatov was laying layer by layer of blocks of uranium and graphite. Will he be able to get the same plutonium & mdash; material that doesn't exist on Earth? The Americans succeeded, but is it misinformation coming from overseas?

Lev Artsimovich, 1974 postage stamp. Photo: Public Domain

Kurchatov himself had no doubts, but he had a lot of opponents …

50 layers were laid, and the “ clicks '' sounding in the hall began to be heard more often. Now Kurchatov did not leave the assembly for & nbsp; a minute.

Theorists predicted that a chain reaction would begin at the assembly of layer 60. They were wrong. Only when the 62nd layer was laid did the “ symphony of clicks '' & nbsp; & mdash; and then never interrupted.

Kurchatov demanded that everyone not employed in management leave the room, and he sat down at the control panel.

At 18:00 on December 25, a self-sustaining chain reaction was recorded. That event is reflected on just one page. It was intended for Stalin:

'We report:

On December 25, 1946, in the laboratory of comrade Kurchatov, an experimental physical uranium-graphite boiler was completed and put into operation.

In the very first days of operation (December 25-26-27) of a uranium-graphite boiler, for the first time in the USSR, on a semi-factory scale, a nuclear chain reaction was obtained. in it by a nuclear chain reaction.

The constructed experimental physical uranium-graphite boiler contains 34,800 kilograms of completely pure uranium metal, 12,900 kilograms of pure uranium dioxide and 420,000 kilograms of pure graphite.

With the help of the constructed physical uranium-graphite boiler, we are now in a position to solve the most important issues of industrial production and use of atomic energy, which until now were considered only presumably, on the basis of theoretical calculations. ''

Under a special stamp

The facts of receiving milligrams of uranium-235 and launching the F-1 reactor were protected not only by the Top Secret stamp, but also by the more severe Special Folder. & Nbsp; Even the closest associates of Kurchatov and Artsimovich had no right to talk about it. Beria feared that the data would get to the Americans and that, taking into account their experience, they would calculate the time and possibilities of creating weapons with us.

Bruno Pontecorvo reported in 1942 that Enrico Fermi had launched an atomic reactor under the stands of the Chicago Stadium. And now, after 3 years, the atomic bomb appeared in America. This means that information from the USSR about the launch of the reactor will tell them that we will have it too soon … Beria turned out to be & nbsp; right. In America, they learned about the launch of our & nbsp; reactor only after testing the first atomic bomb. And the “ Secret '' stamp was removed from the F-1 reactor (as it should be in the Atomic Project) after half a century. On this day, a museum was opened …

On January 9, 1947, Stalin met in the Kremlin with scientists and leaders of the Atomic Project. The meeting lasted three hours.

Stalin immediately signed the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on awarding I.V. Kurchatov and L.A. Artsimovich & nbsp; and both teams they led.

There were no other such extensive and numerous meetings. Historians claim that even Kurchatov saw the leader of the second & mdash; and the last & mdash; Once, they say, in the “ diary of meetings '' kept by Stalin's assistant, there is no mention of this.

But it seems to me that this is another “ blank spot '' in our history. Of course, there were meetings. Yu.B. told me about one of them. Khariton , about another & mdash; K.I.Schelkin … Just by order of Beria, such meetings with atomic scientists were not recorded & mdash; an impenetrable system of secrecy was created around the leader. The fact is that Stalin was well informed about all the intricacies of the Atomic Project, and without consultations with specialists it was simply impossible!

Moreover, at the beginning of 1947, a kind of race for leadership in obtaining nuclear explosives began .

Igor Kurchatov & mdash; it is plutonium.

Lev Artsimovich & mdash; electromagnetic method of uranium separation.

Isaac Kikoin & mdash; gas-fusion method for separating uranium.

The Atomic Troika & nbsp; started almost simultaneously and under the same conditions. In the Urals, three plants were under construction in three closed cities. By the way, they exist in our time.

Plutonium was the first to reach the desired finish. Then & mdash; uranium-235, and all the plants together ensure the security of our Motherland to this day.


Rebranding in Russian. How often did the name of our country change?

30 & nbsp; years ago, on December 25, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR approved the law “ On & nbsp; changing the name of the state Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ''. RSFSR received a new name, including two equivalent options & nbsp; & mdash; Russian Federation (Russia).

It happened & nbsp; a day before & nbsp; after the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist. The Russian Federation became the legal successor of the USSR, and & nbsp; over the Kremlin, the red flag of the Union was replaced by the & nbsp; Russian tricolor.

Private property was introduced in & nbsp; Russia and a course towards a & nbsp; market economy was set. The country has ceased to be socialist, so it is not surprising that the very word disappeared from its & nbsp; name. And & nbsp; this was far from & nbsp; the first rebranding of our state.

Ancient Rus

The beginning of Russian statehood is traditionally counted from the & nbsp; 862 & nbsp; year, when, according to the Tale of Bygone Years, Varangians were called to & nbsp; Novgorod under the & nbsp; head of & nbsp; the ancestor of the dynasty of Russian princes Rurik … This is how a state appeared, which they began to call Russia. Initially, the capital of Ancient Rus was in & nbsp; Kiev. The name 'Kievan Rus' appeared only in the & nbsp; XIX & nbsp; century, and & nbsp; in & nbsp; at different times the capitals of Russia were both & nbsp; Novgorod, and & nbsp; Vladimir . In the & nbsp; middle of the XII century, the ancient Russian state actually collapsed, but & nbsp; independent principalities remained closely connected with each other. Gradually, the role of the capital of Russia passed to & nbsp; Vladimir, and & nbsp; after the merger of the Moscow principality with the Grand Duchy of Vladimir & nbsp; & mdash; to & nbsp; Moscow.

Russian kingdom

By the end of the 15th century, the unification of other Russian lands into the & nbsp; Russian state was carried out. From this time, the modern name Ros (s) ia was gradually assigned to it. The word “ Russia '' that originated in & nbsp; Byzantium denoted the name of Russia. And & nbsp; since the Byzantine Empire was in & nbsp; our ancestors in high esteem, the & nbsp; and & nbsp; word stuck. The Greek name of our country was first introduced into the & nbsp; turnover already in the & nbsp; X century by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine … In the & nbsp; Cyrillic notation, the first known mention of the word “ Russia '' dated April 1387 & nbsp; year. In & nbsp; Russian documents, it began to be used in & nbsp; documents from the end of the 15th & nbsp; century.

The name of the country received its official status after the wedding on the & nbsp; kingdom of Ivan the Terrible in & nbsp; 1547 & nbsp; year. In & nbsp; cases, when it was necessary to designate the entire territory of the country, they said: “ All states of the Russian reign '', “ Russian kingdom ''. The modern spelling of the word “ Russia '', with & nbsp; two letters “ s '', was finally fixed under Peter the Great.

Russian Empire

After the victory of the Russians in the & nbsp; Northern War, Peter the Great on November 2 & nbsp; took the title of All-Russian Emperor. In addition, the Senate decided to confer on him the title of Father of the Fatherland. Accordingly, the state under his control began to be called the Russian Empire. The names of the “ Russian state '' were also used. and & nbsp; Russia. In the & nbsp; published in the & nbsp; XIX century, the Complete Collection of Laws and & nbsp; Code of Laws of the Russian Empire, the definitions of the “ Russian Empire '' and & laquo; Russian state & raquo; & nbsp; were used as equivalent. The main laws, approved in & nbsp; 1906 & nbsp; year, determined identical names “ Russian Empire '', “ Russian State '' and & nbsp; & laquo; Russia & raquo ;.

Russian Republic

After the February Revolution and & nbsp; overthrow of the monarchy, the Provisional Government decided that the new state system and & nbsp; the name of the country should be determined by the Constituent Assembly. However, a few months later, on September 14 & nbsp; 1917, this & nbsp; same government, not & nbsp; waiting for the elections to the & nbsp; Constituent Assembly, declared Russia a republic. & Nbsp; 19 & nbsp; January 1918, the Constituent Assembly proclaimed the Russian Democratic Federal Republic (RDFR), but & nbsp; nbsp; that & nbsp; the same day the meeting was dispersed by armed detachments of the Bolsheviks. After the overthrow of the Provisional Government, the name “ Russian Republic '' For the first time, the Soviet authorities were used in & nbsp; as the official name of the country. Although still 7 & nbsp; November (25 & nbsp; October) 1917 & nbsp; year, & nbsp; the first day of the October Revolution, the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets approved the new name of the state & nbsp; & mdash; Russian Soviet Republic.


For the first time the name “ Russian Socialist Soviet Republic '' mentioned in & nbsp; February 1918 in the & nbsp; Decree on the & nbsp; Cancellation of State Loans. Finally, the state was renamed to the & nbsp; V & nbsp; All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which on July 10, 1918 adopted the first Soviet constitution. She proclaimed the new name of the country & nbsp; & mdash; Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR). After the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in & nbsp; 1922, the RSFSR became part of it. By the Constitution of the USSR dated December 5 & nbsp; 1936, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was renamed into the & nbsp; Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. That & nbsp; is, according to the & nbsp; model of the USSR, they changed the arrangement of the words “ Soviet '' and & nbsp; “ Socialist ''. Abbreviated name of Russia & nbsp; & mdash; RSFSR & nbsp; & mdash; remained unchanged. So the next renaming of the state passed, one might say, unnoticed by the broad masses.


The doctor told how not to be in the hospital after the New Year’s feast

The ill-considered consumption of food and drinks at a feast on the night of January 1 can turn into unpleasant consequences, up to hospitalization, so it is worth adhering to several rules, RIA said News doctor, gastroenterologist of the multidisciplinary clinic “Aloderm” Yulia Machneva.

“On these pre-holiday days, patients often ask hopefully the question:” Doctor, the New Year is coming soon, can we eat salads, hot, and of course, a glass of champagne ? “. I usually answer” you can, but be careful, “and most importantly, observe the measure in everything,” the specialist noted.


Senators urged Biden to cooperate with Germany against Nord Stream 2

Senators asked Biden to cooperate more closely with Germany against the commissioning of Nord Stream 2 Senators Portman and Shahin believe that Moscow is using energy resources as a weapon, therefore it is in the interests of the EU to deprive it of “one more leverage over our allies”

Senators Rob Portman (Republican Party) and Gene Shaheen (Democratic Party) believe that US President Joe Biden should work more closely with the German government to prevent the commissioning of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline. This is stated in their article for The Washington Post.

Senators said Russia is 'showing aggression' in relation to Ukraine, starting with the events of 2014 and ending with the recent concentration of troops on the border. They also accused Moscow of intending to violate international norms by demanding that NATO abandon its eastward expansion, including at the expense of Ukraine, which wants to join the alliance.

“ The Biden administration has made diplomacy at the forefront of its efforts to contain Russia. However, these efforts must be combined with the necessary economic and military measures that will strengthen the diplomatic approach and give it more weight, '' & mdash; written by senators.

They call one such measure a major overhaul. Biden's position on the introduction of sanctions against Nord Stream 2. Portman and Shahin believe that Russia is using its energy resources as a weapon, including demanding “ geopolitical concessions '' from Moldova and refusing to increase gas supplies to Europe amid a sharp jump in prices there.

“ The administration should work closely with the new German government to prevent the pipeline from going into operation; it is in the interests of Europe to deprive Putin of another leverage over our allies, '' & mdash; the senators considered.

They also believe that the United States should increase arms supplies to Ukraine and should not support attempts to force Kiev to cede control of Donbass outside the Minsk agreements.

Russia has repeatedly stated that it does not intend to be the first to attack Ukraine and invade its territory. Moscow argued that the movement of Russian troops in the west of the country poses no threat to other states and emphasized that the Russian military can move through its territory by any route.

In early November, a group of senators spoke with a new initiative to impose sanctions against Nord Stream 2. They proposed an appropriate amendment to the draft US defense budget for fiscal 2022.

However, in early December, the relevant House committee published the final budget provisions and sanctions against Nord Stream 2; it was not mentioned.

Nevertheless, the Senate plans to consider the issue of new sanctions against the Russian pipeline. We are talking about Senator Ted Cruz's bill, which he introduced in mid-December. Bloomberg wrote that Cruz, in exchange for considering his initiative, promised to stop blocking the approval of candidates for 32 positions in the government. The bill will be considered by January 14.

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Check found an undeclared plot of land in Crimea at the judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine

The judge of the Constitutional Court did not declare a land plot in Crimea worth 146 thousand rubles. The Anti-Corruption Agency found an undeclared plot in Crimea on a judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. Such actions have “signs of a criminal offense”, noted there

Judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine Viktor Krivenko did not declare the plot he owned in Crimea, according to the National Agency for the Prevention of Corruption (NAPC).

The agency checked the declarations of the judges and in two of them revealed 'signs of a criminal offense'. Krivenko did not declare a plot worth 4 million hryvnias (about 146.4 thousand rubles). Another judge of the Constitutional Court, Alexander Kasminin, did not indicate in the declaration the value of his apartment in Kiev (2.4 million hryvnias (87.8 thousand rubles)).

to the National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine & raquo;, & mdash; says the agency's message.

Declaring false information is punishable under Art. 366-2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. If the inaccurate information entered in the declaration differs from the real ones in the amount of 500 to 2 thousand living wages, then the maximum punishment for such a violation is & mdash; restriction of freedom for up to two years. If the difference exceeded 2 thousand living wages, then the maximum punishment & mdash; imprisonment for the same period.

NAPK also reported that the former head of the Constitutional Court, Alexander Tupitsky, “ did not receive the right of ownership of the land plot ''; in Crimea, which he indicated in the 2020 declaration, in accordance with Ukrainian legislation.

Since the end of 2020, the Constitutional Court has been in conflict with President Volodymyr Zelenskyy. Then the president signed a decree, which dismissed Oleksandr Tupitsky, who was then the chairman of the court, while such a procedure is not provided for in the Basic Law of Ukraine. After that, in the spring, Zelensky canceled the decrees of 2013 on the appointment of Tupitsky and Kasminin as judges of the Constitutional Court. These actions are also not provided for by law.

In November, Zelensky tried to appoint judges Grischuk and Petrishin to replace them, but the Constitutional Court refused to accept them, stating that there were no vacancies so far.

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Chisinau announced that the minister was not authorized to sign the protocol on gas

Prime Minister of Moldova: Spinu, who signed the protocol with Gazprom, did not have the authority to do so According to the Prime Minister of Moldova, Minister Andrei Spinu, who signed the protocol on the settlement of current issues following negotiations with Gazprom, did not have the authority to do so. However, this does not invalidate the document

Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Infrastructure and Regional Development of Moldova, Andrei Spinu, who participated in negotiations with Gazprom; on gas supplies, there was no authority to sign a protocol on the settlement of issues, the Prime Minister of Moldova Natalya Gavrilitsa said on the air of TV8, she was quoted by RIA Novosti.

“ The Deputy Prime Minister did not have the authority to sign such protocols, the government did not make such a decision, there is no such resolution of the Cabinet. There was no formal authority to sign this protocol '', & mdash; she said. At the same time, Gavrilitsa noted that the document does not lose its force because of this.

“For this type of documents” negotiation protocol & mdash; there is no regulation, this is not a government agreement, and therefore no special powers have been granted '', & mdash; she explained.

Moldova and Gazprom agreed to extend the gas supply contract for five years at the end of October. Then, following the negotiations of the head of Gazprom Alexey Miller, Minister Andrei Spinu and Chairman of the Board of Moldovagaz Vadim Cheban, a protocol was signed to resolve current issues in the gas sector.

The protocol, in particular, said that Moldovagaz will pay to Gazprom debt for five years. The parties must sign an agreement on this by May 1, 2022. However, before that, Moldova will conduct an independent audit of its debt. Until the signing of the agreement, the Moldovan company cannot be sanctioned and cannot be reorganized.

The debts of the Moldovan company were one of the two main stumbling blocks, due to which the parties could not extend the supply agreement for a long time , which expired at the end of September. The second controversial issue was the price of gas.

While the issue was being resolved, Gazprom stated that he would stop gas supplies, but Chisinau asked him not to do this. At the end of November, Moldova paid off its debt to a Russian company for deliveries in October and the first half of November.

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Catholic Christmas around the world

December 25, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates one of the most important holidays of the year & mdash; Nativity. Together with Catholics, the holiday is celebrated by Protestants living according to the Gregorian calendar, as well as 11 out of 15 Local Orthodox Churches in the world that adhere to the New Julian calendar, which coincides with the Gregorian one.

festive masses. For most, Christmas & mdash; a family holiday, which is usually held with loved ones. More details & mdash; in the photographic tape

The head of the Roman Catholic Church Pope Francis during Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican © Reuters

During the Christmas service in the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Novosibirsk © RIA Novosti/Alexander Kryazhev

During the Christmas service at the Church of St. Anthony of Padua in Istanbul (Turkey) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at the Chaldean Catholic Church in Baghdad (Iraq) © Reuters

The rector of the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Father Dmitry (center) during the Christmas service (Moscow) © RIA Novosti/Ramil Sitdikov

During the Christmas service near the church in Al-Hamdaniya (Iraq) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at St. Andrew's Church in Karachi (Pakistan) © Reuters

During the Christmas service in the church in Semarang (Indonesia) © Reuters

During the Christmas service near Manila Cathedral in the Philippines © Reuters

During the Christmas service at St. Joseph's Cathedral in Beijing (China) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at the Cathedral in Jakarta (Indonesia) © Reuters

The head of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Francis, during Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican © Reuters

Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Moscow © RIA Novosti/Ramil Sitdikov

The head of the Roman Catholic Church Pope Francis during Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican © Reuters

During the Christmas service in the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Novosibirsk © RIA Novosti/Alexander Kryazhev

During the Christmas service at the Church of St. Anthony of Padua in Istanbul (Turkey) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at the Chaldean Catholic Church in Baghdad (Iraq) © Reuters

The rector of the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Father Dmitry (center) during the Christmas service (Moscow) © RIA Novosti/Ramil Sitdikov

During the Christmas service near the church in Al-Hamdaniya (Iraq) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at St. Andrew's Church in Karachi (Pakistan) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at the church in Semarang (Indonesia) © Reuters

During the Christmas service near the Manila Cathedral in the Philippines © Reuters

During the Christmas service at St. Joseph's Cathedral in Beijing (China) © Reuters

During the Christmas service at the Cathedral in Jakarta (Indonesia) © Reuters

The head of the Roman Catholic Church Pope Francis during Mass at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican © Reuters

Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Moscow © RIA Novosti/Ramil Sitdikov


Up to seven degrees below zero is expected in Moscow on Saturday

Cloudy weather and snow are predicted in the & nbsp; Russian capital on Saturday, December 25, the official & nbsp; website of the & nbsp; Hydrometeorological Center of the Russian Federation.


During the day, the air temperature in the city will be from five to seven degrees below zero. The wind is westerly at a speed of six to 11 meters per second. Atmospheric pressure & ndash; 729 millimeters of mercury.

Cloudy, snow and ice are expected in the capital on Sunday night. Columns of thermometers & nbsp; can go down to & nbsp; mark & ​​nbsp; minus 13 degrees.

Southwest wind at a speed of six to 11 meters per second. Atmospheric pressure will be 736 millimeters of mercury.

Let us remind you that Wednesday, December 22, became the coldest day in Moscow in the history of meteorological observations at VDNKh, which have been conducted since 1948. Thermometer columns all day stayed below minus 20 degrees.

On the eve, against the background of abnormally cold weather, the Hydrometeorological Center extended the orange level of weather danger in the Russian capital & nbsp; and the Moscow region. & Nbsp;


What do they want to come up with instead of the exam?

Weekly “Arguments and Facts” No. 51. How much does it cost to celebrate the New Year? 12/22/2021 Expert's answer 0 + –

Head of Rosobrnadzor Anzor Muzaev said that the idea of ​​admission to a university based on a student's portfolio, when all the achievements & mdash; educational and no & mdash; summarized in one “ file ''. It is assumed that the role of the portfolio will grow by 2030. “The point is to take into account more than a one-time exam when entering universities.

After all, an accidental breakdown is possible on the exam. And there will be no other chance, & mdash; explains Honored Teacher of the Russian Federation Evgeny Bunimovich . & mdash; The portfolio may include the results of sports, creative competitions, etc., shown starting from the 6th grade. This is technically possible. But I admit that the reliability of the information will raise big questions and suspicions. The portfolio idea is successfully implemented where the level of public confidence in the authorities is higher. For example, in Estonia, which is several times smaller than Moscow, this works. ''


Construction of two Borei-class missile carriers to begin in 2023 – TASS

Two Project 955A strategic missile submarine cruisers will be laid down at the Sevmash enterprise in 2023, TASS reports, citing a source in the military-industrial complex.

He added that a contract is expected to be signed next year. & nbsp; Strategic missile carriers of the Borei-A project; will be built as part of the state armament program, operating until 2027.

It is noted that the new missile carriers will become the eleventh and twelfth submarines of the Borei class.

Currently in The Russian Navy includes three submarines of the base project 955 Borey, as well as two ships of the upgraded project 955A Borei-A. Five more submarines & nbsp; are in different stages of construction.

Earlier it was reported that the ship of the upgraded project 955A “ Borey-A '' “ Prince Oleg '' & nbsp; as part of & nbsp; tests successfully fired a ballistic missile & nbsp; “ Bulava ''.


Why is vacation being forced to plan a year in advance?

Weekly “Arguments and Facts” No. 51. How much does it cost to celebrate the New Year? 12/22/2021

The Human Resources Department requires that the dates of the leave in 2022 be announced in December. At the same time, the administration will not allow the leave to be postponed. It is legal? With such a life, you don't know what tomorrow will be. What are your plans for the year ?!

Expert's answer 0 + –

& ndash; The Labor Code obliges employers to plan holidays in December. This is done in the interests of the employees, since to refuse to provide the vacation included in the schedule, the employer then has no right, & ndash; says Vyacheslav Filippov, legal adviser of the personnel department of the Higher School of Economics . & ndash; Only certain categories of citizens can choose a convenient rest time for themselves & ndash; for example, parents with three or more minor children. The rest are obliged to coordinate their wishes with the management, including on the transfer of vacation days. If there is a production need, employees are required to rest exactly on the days that were planned. There are also strict requirements as to which parts it is permissible to divide the annual leave into. One part must be at least 14 calendar days.


Roskomnadzor has blocked the website “OVD-Info”

Roskomnadzor blocked the website of the human rights project “OVD-Info” In September, “OVD-Info” was added to the register of foreign agents – the reason was the publication “how to avoid liability for offenses of an extremist nature”, the court explained

Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media

Roskomnadzor has blocked the website of the OVD-Info human rights project (included in the register of unregistered public associations performing the functions of a foreign agent), follows from the data of the register of the department.

Access to the site is restricted by the decision of the Lukhovitsky District Court of the Moscow Region. The details of this decision were not disclosed.

The Roskomnadzor register states that access is limited to both the entire website and a separate page.

RBC sent a request to the press services of the Lukhovitsky District Court and Roskomnadzor.

The site was entered in the register under Art. 15.1 of Federal Law No. 149-FZ 'On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection'. According to it, Roskomnadzor also restricts access to pages containing materials with child pornography, information on the methods of making and using drugs, methods of committing suicide and calling for suicide.

Non-state human rights project 'OVD-Info' launched in December 2011 after the arrests of protesters in Moscow. Among other things, he monitors cases of abuse of authority by law enforcement officials in relation to detainees, provides legal assistance to the latter and monitors incidents of violence in prisons.

In September, OVD-Info; entered into the register of unregistered public associations performing the functions of a foreign agent. He must submit reports to the Ministry of Justice, in which it is necessary to indicate a list of activities and programs, as well as financial receipts and expenses. In addition, the project is obliged to mark its materials with a note on the status of a “ foreign agent ''. For violation of the requirements, fines and criminal liability are provided.

The project tried to challenge the decision to be included in the register in court, but was refused. The reason for the refusal, among other things, was the publication of materials on “ how to avoid responsibility for offenses of an extremist nature '', directed also to minors, and templates of complaints and applications to the court against the actions of law enforcement officials, explained in court.

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Kadyrov’s daughter was awarded the medal “For the Protection of Human Rights”

The daughter of the head of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, Aishat, was awarded the medal “For the protection of human rights”. Ramzan Kadyrov's daughter, Aishat, was awarded the medal “For the protection of human rights.” In October, a 22-year-old girl headed the Ministry of Culture of the Republic