The weekly “Argumenty i Fakty” No. 47. Why there are fewer fish, birds and animals 24/11/2021 The plot of the Great Patriotic War war
80 & nbsp; years ago, 29 & nbsp; November 1941 & nbsp; g., in & nbsp; the village of Petrishchevo sounded the words: “ No matter how many & nbsp; hang us, do not & nbsp; hang everyone, we are 200 & nbsp; million. But & nbsp; for & nbsp; our comrades will take revenge on you. ''
These were the last words of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya … She pronounced them & nbsp; already with a & nbsp; noose on & nbsp; neck. & Nbsp; the next second, a box was kicked out from under her feet, and & nbsp; the noose tightened. It was this version of Zoya's death that prevailed in the & nbsp; late USSR & nbsp; & mdash; without much detail. Which later did a disservice, giving unscrupulous people a reason to arrange a whole parade of “ revelations ''. Say, “ the most guarded Soviet secret was & nbsp; the fact that many fellow villagers reacted to & nbsp; Zoya's death without sympathy. '' & Nbsp;
Painting of the execution of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, painted by the Kukryniksy in 1947. Photo: Public Domain
Indeed, when Kosmodemyanskaya was brought to the & nbsp; gallows, one of the & nbsp; residents of the village of Petrishchevo, Agrafen Smirnov , hit her & nbsp; feet with a stick, shouting: “Who have you hurt?” They burned my house down, but & nbsp; did nothing to the Germans … & raquo; & nbsp;
However, it was not a secret in & nbsp; during the war and & nbsp; in the & nbsp; time after the war. About & nbsp; the act of Smirnova and & nbsp; about & nbsp; her trial in & nbsp; September 1942 & nbsp; writer Pavel Nilin prepared an essay with & nbsp; characteristic title “ Meanness ''. Where, by the way, it was mentioned that Kosmodemyanskaya also burned the huts of the Karelovs and & nbsp; Solntsevs: “ Hit her, & nbsp; & mdash; said the German officer Ivan Solntsev … & mdash; & nbsp; She burned your hut … '' Ivan Yegorovich Solntsev, an old collective farmer, a Russian man, looked at the & nbsp; tortured Russian girl and & nbsp; said nothing. Then the Germans called Agrafena Smirnova, and & nbsp; the old woman, in & nbsp; rage, hit the girl. Hit once and & nbsp; another. And & nbsp; swung at & nbsp; the third time, spewing foul curses. But & nbsp; then a Russian woman Praskovya Petrushina appeared and & nbsp; blocked the girl with her body. Agrafena Smirnova and & nbsp; her & nbsp; accomplice Fedosya Solina , who incited fellow villagers to & nbsp; beat Zoya, were tried and & nbsp; shot. As well as the & nbsp; headman Semyon Sviridov , who gave Zoya to the Germans.
Then this episode from the & nbsp; story of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya dropped out. About & nbsp; the fact that there were no “ many fellow villagers '' condemning Kosmodemyanskaya was forgotten. But the words “ she burned down the house, but & nbsp; did nothing to the Germans & nbsp; '' have become a little & nbsp; is not & nbsp; the banner of those who question her & nbsp; feat. This can make an impression on gullible people, especially when it comes to the & nbsp; “ suffering of civilians who, as a result of Zoe's actions, were left homeless in winter. ''
In & nbsp; these words and & nbsp; lies a forgery that distorts the idea of & nbsp; what happened in & nbsp; those & nbsp; days. Civilians were indeed left homeless in winter. But & nbsp; not & nbsp; in & nbsp; as a result of the actions of Zoe and & nbsp; other fighters of sabotage groups. Better than others, witnesses and & nbsp; witnesses from both & nbsp; and & nbsp; from & nbsp; can tell about this.
“ It was on the & nbsp; Russian front in & nbsp; November 1941 & nbsp; g. Our battalion withdrew to the & nbsp; village of Petrishchevo, & nbsp; a few kilometers from the & nbsp; front. We & nbsp; were happy to rest and & nbsp; occupied the hut. The Russian family was put on the & nbsp; street. As soon as we took a naps, the alarm went up: four huts were on fire … '' This is the testimony of a captured non-commissioned officer of the 10th company of the 332nd regiment of the 197th Wehrmacht division Karl Beyerlein .
“ The Germans kicked us out of the houses with rifle butts. In & nbsp; every hut their & nbsp; was packed. '' “ Mom took us with & nbsp; sis on a & nbsp; sled to & nbsp; Zlatoustovo. And & nbsp; when we & nbsp; returned, the Germans at & nbsp; we already made bunk bunks to sleep, & nbsp; & mdash; there was no place for us & nbsp; left. “ When they set fire to the Karelovs' house next to & nbsp; and & nbsp; a shed with & nbsp; horses near it, the Germans jumped out half-dressed. '' These are the memories of the inhabitants of the village of Petrishchevo. It is clear that they could not & nbsp; and & nbsp; and that means the picture is true. It was the Germans who drove the locals out of & nbsp; houses in & nbsp; frost, leaving them & nbsp; homeless. It was the Germans who considered themselves the owners of the houses & nbsp; & mdash; just by & nbsp; right of conquest. It turns out that Zoya was destroying houses that actually belonged to the enemy.
So, the group of fighters, which Zoya entered, by the first entry into the village of Petrishchevo, managed to set fire to three residential buildings, packed to capacity by the Nazis, and & nbsp; one barn. Is it a lot or a little? Someone, maybe, and & nbsp; is not enough. But & nbsp; let's compare the result of this raid of several Red Army men of the reconnaissance and sabotage military unit 9903 & nbsp; with the results of their & nbsp; colleagues. For example, with the & nbsp; results of the raid of the Special Forces of the Western Front, which was formed by Georgy Zhukov on the & nbsp; base of the Airborne Reserve battalion of the Military Council in & nbsp; October 1941 & nbsp; city & nbsp; and & nbsp; totaled 600 & nbsp; people. This is what the senior political instructor of this unit Ignatiy Strigunov said : “ Arriving at the & nbsp; destination on November 26 & nbsp;, the fighters immediately & nbsp; received a task for & nbsp; two days & nbsp; & mdash; destroy several villages where the Germans settled … In just & nbsp; during the march, the detachment burned 62 & nbsp; houses where the Germans settled, destroyed the headquarters of the German division in the & nbsp; village of Petrovskoe … & raquo; & nbsp;
By & nbsp; everything turns out that Zoe's group and & nbsp; she herself acted hardly & nbsp; was not & nbsp; more effective than experienced saboteurs, armed with machine guns, machine guns, grenades, automatic rifles and & nbsp; even rifles – “ silent ''; with & nbsp; devices of flameless-silent shooting. At & nbsp; Zoya's disposal was only a revolver and & nbsp; bottles with & nbsp; Molotov cocktails …
But & nbsp; this was only Zoya's first visit to & nbsp; Petrishchevo. Group Leader Boris Krainov considered the task completed. In the & nbsp; principle, he & nbsp; had reason to believe so. Recall & nbsp; & mdash; on the account of the group there are three houses and a barn, where there were 20 & nbsp; horses. However, Zoe returned to continue the sabotage. What for? Is it really out of & nbsp; love of & nbsp; arson or misunderstood heroism?
A few lines from the & nbsp; “ Act of interrogation of witnesses to the execution of Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, drawn up on January 25, 1942 in & nbsp; d. Petrishchevo, Gribtsovsky Village Council, Vereisky District, Moscow Region '': '' German soldiers caught her & nbsp; at & nbsp; that & nbsp; time when she was performing a combat mission & nbsp; & mdash; set fire to the stable, in & nbsp; of which there were more than 300 & nbsp; horses. The German sentry grabbed her & nbsp; from behind, and & nbsp; she did not & nbsp; had time to shoot.
The calm before the storm
In & nbsp; Wehrmacht sample 1941 & nbsp; g. there were 1 & nbsp; million horses. & nbsp; 90% of & nbsp; them were assigned to & nbsp; infantry divisions. In terms of the number of horses, the standard German division was twice as large as the rifle division of the Red Army. This explains the speed of movement of the Germans. The mobility of the Wehrmacht in the & nbsp; Battle for & nbsp; Moscow was provided by horses. It was no coincidence that Zoya chose the “ stable, where there were more than 300 & nbsp; horses '' as her next target. This suggests & nbsp; the fact that she perfectly understood the meaning of the sabotage operation & nbsp; & mdash; strike at & nbsp; including & nbsp; on & nbsp; mobility of Germans. Apparently, commander of military unit 9903 Artur Sprogis acted in & nbsp; in strict accordance with & nbsp; order of the Headquarters No. & nbsp; 0428 dated & nbsp; 17 & nbsp; November 1941 & nbsp; g .: “ To destroy settlements, select the most courageous and & nbsp; strong in & nbsp; politico-moral terms of soldiers, commanders and & nbsp; them & nbsp; tasks and & nbsp; the significance of this event for the defeat of the German army. Zoya's persistence in achieving this goal is also explained by the fact that the regiment's headquarters was located in Petrishchev and & nbsp; also a communications center, whose tasks were to track the radio exchange of Soviet troops. & Nbsp;
And & nbsp; now remember the date. Zoya was captured on the evening of November 28 & nbsp; They tortured all night. And & nbsp; hung on the morning of November 29 & nbsp;. These were the days of calm before the storm, before the famous Soviet counter-offensive, which will begin on December 5 & nbsp; In & nbsp; conditions of preparation of a major operation, communications and & nbsp; enemy mobility & nbsp; & mdash; targets on which & nbsp; must be struck. At any cost. Zoya decided that her & nbsp; life would be the price.